Table 3

Randomised media higher-dose results among non-smokers, 2013 Tips evaluation

Non-smoker outcome variablesDescriptive statisticsMultivariate models*
Standard-dose marketsHigher-dose marketsp Value†Higher-dose adjusted ORp Value†
Ad exposure
 Awareness of any Tips ad on TV  73.9  83.9<0.001  1.79<0.001
 Frequency of exposure to Tips ads§4.467.28<0.0012.61<0.001
Non-smokers’ communication with others
 Talked to friends/family about dangers of smoking35.743.10.0051.260.029
 Encouraged friend/family who smoke to quit40.045.50.0331.140.135
 Recommended friend/family who smoke to use cessation resources3.44.10.2711.070.411
Disease knowledge (campaign related)
 Heart disease86.891.00.0171.650.012
 Hole in throat (stoma or tracheotomy)85.592.0<0.0012.19<0.001
 Buerger's disease33.837.30.1271.200.088
 COPD or chronic bronchitis88.995.4<0.0012.48<0.001
 Worsening of diabetic complications92.194.90.0341.700.134
Disease knowledge (unrelated to campaign)
 Lung cancer95.598.10.0042.640.002
 Cancer of mouth or throat93.697.2<0.0012.65<0.001
 Gallstones (control item)
  • *Multivariate models control for media market population size, median income in media market, media market smoking prevalence and other smoker in household. Survey weights control for differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity and educational attainment across randomised markets.

  • †p Values are calculated as one-tailed, p<0.05.

  • ‡Statistically significant differences are indicated in boldface type.

  • §Frequency is expressed as an integer.

  • ¶Ordinary least squares β coefficient.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Tips, Tips From Former Smokers; TV, television.