Table 1

Characteristics of observational studies examining association between impact of POS tobacco promotion and behavioural smoking outcomes among children and adolescents

First author, referenceYear publishedYear data collectedCountryStudy designAverage age of sample (years)Sample sizeExposureOutcomeAdjustmentsPOS context scoreNOQAS score (10 maximum)OR (95% CI)
Braverman2420041995NorwayCross-sectional13–154065Self-reported recent exposure to retail tobacco promotionSmoking status (daily, occasional, non-smoker)SES; ethnicity; gender; smoking by family; smoking by friends022.07 (1.73 to 2.49)
Dauphinee2520132006USACohort; 12 months11–151179Self-reported store-visiting frequencyEver-smoking (vs never-smoking)Gender; ethnicity; school year; survey year; school performance; unsupervised days after school; risk-taking propensity; smoker at home; friend who smokes171.15 (1.04 to 1.27)
Feighery2620062003USACross-sectional11–142063Self-reported store-visiting frequencyEver smoking (vs never-smoking)SES; ethnicity; gender; smoking by family; smoking by friends; unsupervised time152.01 (1.54 to 2.62)
Henriksen2720042003USACross-sectional11–142125Self-reported store-visiting frequencyEver smoking (vs never-smoking)SES; ethnicity; gender; smoking by family; smoking by friends; exposure to other tobacco marketing151.50 (1.10 to 2.10)
Henriksen1820102003USACohort; 12 months11–141182Self-reported store-visiting frequencyTransition from never-smoking to ever-smokingSchool year; gender; ethnicity; racial minority; academic performance; being unsupervised after school; risk-taking propensity; parent smoking; sibling smoking; exposure to smoking on TV/ movies; perceived exposure to retail tobacco advertising172.06 (1.32 to 3.21)
Kim2220132004–2008USACross-sectional9–1746 894Mean no. of cigarette adverts per store at county levelCurrent smokerAge; ethnicity; gender; student income; school smoking prevalence; living with smoker; county of residence; year of survey180.96 (0.84 to 1.10)
Paynter1920092007New ZealandCross-sectional14–1527 757Self-reported store-visiting frequencyCurrent smokerAge; gender; ethnicity; peer smoking; parental smoking; smoking in the home; school SES071.73 (1.19 to 2.50)
Schooler2819961994USACross-sectional13571Self-reported frequency of noticing retail tobacco promotionEver smokingNA122.98 (2.01 to 4.41)
Slater2320072003USACross-sectional14–1826 301Observational assessments of tobacco promotion in storesTransition from never-smoker to ‘puffer’School grade, gender, ethnicity; resides with both parents; student income; parental education; urbanisation; state-level tobacco control policies; year of data collection161.08 (1.02 to 1.14)
Spanopoulos2920132011UKCross-sectional11–155376Self-reported store-visiting frequencyEver smoking (vs never-smoking)Gender; ethnicity; school year; academic performance; rebelliousness; parent smoking; sibling smoking; perceived peer smoking prevalence; SES071.64 (1.14 to 2.34)
Watanabe3020132008–2009JapanCross-sectional15–18540Self-reported store-visiting frequencyCurrent smokerParental smoking126.73 (2.00 to 22.60)
  • NA, not available; NOQAS, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale; POS, point-of-sale; SES, socioeconomic status.