Table 2

Characteristics of observational studies examining association between impact of POS tobacco promotion and smoking susceptibility among children and adolescents

First authorYear publishedYear data collectedCountryStudy designAverage age of sample (years)Sample sizeExposureOutcomeAdjustmentsPOS context scoreNOQAS score (10 maximum)OR (95% CI)
Dube3120132011USACross-sectional11–183043Self-reported exposure to retail tobacco promotionSmoking susceptibility among never-smokersSchool grade, sex, ethnicity, exposure to peer smoking, exposure to smoking at home141.35 (0.88 to 2.07)
Feighery2620062003USACross-sectional11–141642Self-reported store-visiting frequencySmoking susceptibility among never-smokersSES; ethnicity; gender; smoking by family; smoking by friends; unsupervised time151.25 (0.98 to 1.61)
Kim2220132004–2008USACross-sectional9–1742 138Mean number of cigarette adverts per store at county levelSmoking susceptibility among non-smokersAge; ethnicity; gender; student income; school smoking prevalence; living with smoker; county of residence; year of survey171.03 (0.89 to 1.20)
Mackintosh3220122008UKCross-sectional11–16905Self-reported frequency of noticing retail tobacco promotionSmoking susceptibility among never-smokersAge; gender; SES; sibling smoking; close friend smoking; parent smoking; attraction to PoS displays061.77 (1.15 to 2.73)
Paynter1920092007New ZealandCross-sectional14–1515 071Self-reported store-visiting frequencySmoking susceptibility among never-smokersAge; gender; ethnicity; peer smoking; parental smoking; smoking in the home; school SES071.68 (1.37 to 2.06)
Spanopoulos2920132011UKCross-sectional11–151204Self-reported store-visiting frequencySmoking susceptibility among never-smokersGender; ethnicity; school year; academic performance; rebelliousness; parent smoking; sibling smoking; perceived peer smoking prevalence; SES071.20 (0.91 to 1.58)
  • NOQAS, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale; POS, point-of-sale; SES, socioeconomic status.