Table 5

Early experiences of adolescent waterpipe smokers according to waterpipe-specific dependence measures (SCTS-28 and LWDS-10J)

% of waterpipe smokers who endorsed each symptom
Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS-28)*
Smoking waterpipe helps me to concentrate53.1
Smoking waterpipe is a good way to reward myself79.4
When I smoke waterpipe, I feel less irritable, frustrated, or angry35.0
When I smoke waterpipe, I feel less sad, blue, or depressed48.8
When I smoke waterpipe, I have less insomnia or trouble sleeping43.8
I enjoy blowing waterpipe smoke from my mouth and nose, and the feeling of inhaling waterpipe smoke into my mouth and lungs60.0
I am confident that I can quit smoking waterpipe anytime I want40.0
I spend too much money on waterpipe91.9
Smoking waterpipe makes me feel sociable30.0
Smoking waterpipe makes me feel happy71.9
Just the sight or smell of waterpipe is enough to make me want to smoke82.5
Smoking waterpipe makes me feel energetic34.4
Most of my friends smoke waterpipe65.6
I smoke waterpipe usually with friends or in cafés/restaurants54.4
When I smoke waterpipe I usually share it with others21.3
Even if I was sure that waterpipe is not good for my health, I would still smoke it as often78.8
It would be very difficult for me to be in a restaurant, and not smoke waterpipe78.1
It would be difficult for me to refuse an invitation to smoke waterpipe51.9
If I was with someone who objected to my waterpipe smoking, I would smoke it anyway15.6
My favourite waterpipe is the one I smoke after having gone on an extended period without smoking it17.5
If the cost of waterpipe smoking doubled, I would still smoke it as often69.4
I always make sure I have an adequate supply of waterpipe materials (tobacco, coal, foil, etc)35.0
If my waterpipe smoking session was to get interrupted, I would be annoyed40.6
If I could not smoke waterpipe for a while, I would have difficulty concentrating80.6
I usually allocate a special time of the day for smoking waterpipe71.3
If I could not smoke waterpipe for a while, I would feel an urge or craving to smoke33.1
I want to quit smoking waterpipe78.8
I have family or friends who would like me to quit smoking waterpipe91.9
Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-10J (LWDS-10J)
(A) Psychosocial
 Do you smoke waterpipe to improve your morale?65.6
 Do you smoke waterpipe to please others?64.4
(B) Relaxation/pleasure
 Do you smoke waterpipe for pleasure?36.9
 Do you smoke waterpipe to relax your nerves?47.5
(C) Physical dependence
 Do you smoke waterpipe when you are seriously ill?50.6
 Do you smoke waterpipe alone?30.0
Number of times you could stop waterpipe for more than 7 days
At least once (vs none)
What percentage of income would you spend on waterpipe smoking?
≤50% of monthly income (vs >50% of monthly income)
Number of days you could spend without waterpipe
>7 days (vs ≤7 days)
Number of waterpipes you usually smoke per week
<7 waterpipes/week (vs ≥7 waterpipes/week)
  • *These items are specific to waterpipe use patterns and include aspects associated with dependence that are not captured by the LWDS-10J.

  • †Categories were collapsed due to small cell sizes.