Table 1

Possible causes and outcome of hardening among the population of smokers

ConstructExamples of possible measures among continuing smokers
1. Motivational hardening—‘don’t want to quit’
  • Quit intentions and motivation

    Quit attempt frequency

    Level of regret about smoking

    Attitudes to smoking/tobacco control measures

2. Addiction hardening—‘can't quit’Addiction measure (eg, Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence score)
Time to first cigarette
Number smoked/day
Proportion of heavy smokers among current smokers
3. Disadvantage and mental and social stress—‘can't quit’Individual and area-based measures of socioeconomic status
Level of psychological stress and other measures of mental health
4. Quit outcomes—‘don't quit’Quit success rates