Table 1

Demographic characteristics of adult current e-cigarette users by use status (%), 2013–2014 PATH Study Wave 1 Survey

All current e-cigarette users*
(%, 95% CI)
(n=3642)
Infrequent e-cigarette users†
(%, 95% CI)
(n=1559)
Moderate e-cigarette users‡
(%, 95% CI)
(n=1340)
Daily e-cigarette users§
(%, 95% CI)
(n=734)
p Value
Overall42.2 (40.4 to 43.9)36.5 (34.7 to 38.3)21.3 (19.3 to 23.3)
Sex0.4374
  Male53.5 (51.5 to 55.4)52.4 (50.1 to 54.8)53.5 (50.2 to 56.8)55.5 (51.3 to 59.8)
  Female46.5 (44.6 to 48.5)47.6 (45.2 to 49.9)46.5 (43.2 to 49.8)44.5 (40.2 to 48.7)
Race/ethnicity<0.0001
  White, non-Hispanic71.0 (69.3 to 72.7)66.7 (64.2 to 69.2)71.6 (68.7 to 74.6)78.5 (75.1 to 82.0)
  Black or African-American, non-Hispanic9.3 (8.1 to 10.4)9.5 (7.8 to 11.3)10.1 (8.5 to 11.8)7.2 (4.9 to 9.5)
  Asian, non-Hispanic2.7 (1.9 to 3.5)3.3 (2.0 to 4.6)2.4 (1.0 to 3.8)
 American-Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)
  Other or multirace, non-Hispanic3.8 (3.2 to 4.3)3.4 (2.7 to 4.2)4.3 (3.2 to 5.3)3.6 (2.3 to 4.9)
  Hispanic12.7 (11.3 to 14.0)16.4 (14.4 to 18.4)11.2 (9.2 to 13.3)7.8 (5.8 to 9.7)
Age group
(years)
<0.0001
  18–2420.9 (19.4 to 22.3)24.5 (22.0 to 27.1)20.3 (18.1 to 22.5)14.6 (12.0 to 17.3)
  25–3426.4 (24.7 to 28.1)25.0 (22.5 to 27.6)28.4 (25.8 to 31.0)25.6 (21.9 to 29.2)
  35–4418.8 (17.3 to 20.4)19.5 (17.3 to 21.7)18.7 (16.3 to 21.0)17.8 (14.7 to 21.0)
  45–5416.6 (15.3 to 17.9)17.1 (14.7 to 19.5)15.1 (12.8 to 17.3)18.1 (15.0 to 21.3)
  55–6412.4 (11.2 to 13.6)10.1 (8.3 to 12.0)12.8 (10.9 to 14.7)16.0 (12.7 to 19.4)
  65+4.9 (3.9 to 5.9)3.6 (2.4 to 4.9)4.7 (3.1 to 6.3)7.8 (5.4 to 10.2)
Education0.2410
  Less than high-school diploma12.3 (11.1 to 13.5)14.3 (12.4 to 16.1)10.9 (9.1 to 12.7)10.7 (8.4 to 13.0)
  GED9.7 (8.7 to 10.8)10.1 (8.4 to 11.7)9.6 (7.9 to 11.2)9.5 (7.2 to 11.8)
  High-school diploma26.0 (24.2 to 27.8)25.4 (22.7 to 28.0)26.9 (24.1 to 29.7)25.7 (21.7 to 29.7)
  Some college/associate’s degree39.2 (37.2 to 41.2)37.2 (34.5 to 39.9)40.1 (37.0 to 43.2)41.6 (37.3 to 46.0)
  Bachelor’s degree or more12.8 (11.5 to 14.0)13.1 (11.3 to 14.9)12.5 (10.6 to 14.4)12.5 (9.5 to 15.4)
Income0.0055
 <100% of the FPL for income35.5 (33.7 to 37.4)38.5 (35.9 to 41.0)34.9 (31.6 to 38.1)30.8 (27.4 to 34.1)
  100%–199% of the FPL for income25.7 (23.8 to 27.5)23.7 (21.3 to 26.0)27.5 (24.6 to 30.4)26.6 (22.6 to 30.6)
  ≥200% of the FPL for income38.8 (36.7 to 40.9)37.9 (35.1 to 40.6)37.6 (34.4 to 40.9)42.6 (38.8 to 46.4)
Sexual identity**0.7954
  Straight90.4 (89.4 to 91.5)90.3 (88.8 to 91.8)90.3 (88.5 to 92.1)90.9 (88.5 to 93.3)
  Gay or lesbian3.2 (2.6 to 3.9)3.5 (2.4 to 4.5)3.0 (1.9 to 4.1)3.1 (1.8 to 4.5)
  Bisexual4.7 (3.9 to 5.5)4.3 (3.3 to 5.4)5.3 (4.0 to 6.7)4.4 (3.0 to 5.8)
  Something else1.6 (1.2 to 2.0)1.9 (1.3 to 2.5)1.4 (0.7 to 2.0)
Current cigarette smoking status<0.0001
  Current smoker69.7 (68.0 to 71.4)76.9 (74.6 to 79.2)73.2 (70.5 to 75.9)49.6 (45.7 to 53.5)
  Recent quitter
(≤1 year)
8.6 (7.4 to 9.7)2.1 (1.2 to 3.0)5.2 (3.9 to 6.4)27.2 (23.6 to 30.9)
  Former smoker
(>1 year)
5.7 (4.8 to 6.7)2.7 (1.8 to 3.5)4.1 (2.9 to 5.3)14.7 (11.5 to 17.9)
  Never-smoker16.0 (14.9 to 17.1)18.4 (16.2 to 20.5)17.5 (15.3 to 19.7)8.5 (6.4 to 10.6)
Current use of other combusted tobacco products††
  Yes39.2 (37.1 to 41.3)44.8 (41.8 to 47.8)40.8 (37.5 to 44.1)25.4 (22.1 to 28.6)<0.0001
Current use of non-combusted tobacco products‡‡
  Yes8.9 (7.8 to 9.9)8.9 (7.4 to 10.5)10.0 (8.3 to 11.7)6.8 (4.8 to 8.9)0.0662
  • p Values for frequency of use categories from χ2 test. Frequencies reflect unweighted data and percentage-weighted data.

  • *Respondents who reported currently using an e-cigarette ‘every day’ or ‘some days’.

  • †Respondents who responded using an e-cigarette some days and reported using an e-cigarette on 0 to 2 of the past 30 days.

  • ‡Respondents who responded using an e-cigarette some days and reported using an e-cigarette on more than two of the past 30 days.

  • §Respondents who responded currently using e-cigarettes every day.

  • ¶Estimate was suppressed; the relative SE was >30%.

  • **Respondents who reported their sexual identity as ‘something else’ were asked to provide additional information about this response and could state that it meant identifying with labels such as ‘queer’, being transgender, being in the process of figuring out their sexuality, not thinking of themselves as having a sexuality, not using such labels or something else.

  • ††Other combusted tobacco products are filtered cigars, cigarillos, traditional cigars, hookah and pipes.

  • ‡‡Other non-combusted tobacco products are smokeless tobacco (snus pouches, loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit or chewing tobacco) and dissolvable tobacco.

  • FLP, Federal Poverty Level for income; GED, General Education Development certificate; PATH, Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health.