Table 1

Pooled estimates of mortality outcomes associated with smokeless tobacco use by WHO region

OutcomeRegionNSummary effect size (random effects)I2%τ2
All causeSEAR121.25 (1.08, 1.44)950.04
AMR41.17 (1.12, 1.22)0<0.001
EUR*21.23 (0.97, 1.56)840.02
Overall181.22 (1.11, 1.34)920.03
All cancerSEAR81.46 (1.26, 1.68)630.02
AMR41.14 (1.01, 1.29)220.003
EUR*21.04 (0.90, 1.20)0<0.001
Overall141.31 (1.16, 1.47)720.03
UADT cancerSEAR72.26 (1.47, 3.47)800.20
AMR*21.58 (0.52, 4.81)0<0.001
Overall92.17 (1.47, 3.22)740.18
Stomach cancerSEAR41.71 (1.32, 2.20)0<0.001
AMR41.18 (1.01, 1.37)0<0.001
Overall81.33 (1.12, 1.59)240.01
Cervical cancerSEAR22.07 (1.64, 2.61)0<0.001
Overall22.07 (1.64, 2.61)0<0.001
IHDSEAR71.06 (0.97, 1.16)600.008
AMR41.16 (1.00, 1.34)470.009
EUR*61.16 (1.05, 1.28)0<0.001
Overall171.10 (1.04, 1.17)410.005
StrokeSEAR61.37 (1.14, 1.64)550.02
AMR41.44 (1.30, 1.59)0<0.001
EUR*21.25 (0.91, 1.70)0<0.001
Overall121.37 (1.24, 1.51)230.006
  • Figures in parenthesis are 95% confidence limits.

  • *Indicates estimate based on men only; tests of publication bias (Begg-Mazumdar's test and Egger's test) were non-significant for all outcomes; N is the number of individual estimates.

  • AMR, American region; EUR, European region; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; SEAR, South-East Asian region; UADT, upper aerodigestive tract.