Table 2

Descriptive statistics on variables involved in the analysis (n=1 02 831)

Independent variables
Volume of exposure* to truth antismoking ads—overall (in 100s)9.756.23
Volume of exposure to state antismoking ads—overall (in 100s)1.292.16
Volume of exposure to state antismoking ads—general/adult targeted (in 100s)1.031.83
Volume of exposure to state antismoking ads—youth targeted (in 100s)0.260.65
Volume of exposure to state antismoking ads—specific general/adult-targeted ad themes (in 100s)
 Efficacy appeal0.691.24
 Health consequences to others0.430.95
 Health consequences to self0.430.85
 Anti-industry appeal0.310.83
 Irrationality/ addiction appeal0.250.54
State-level policy variables
 % of state GDP in a year generated from tobacco farming0.020.06
 Excise tax (in $) per cigarette pack, excluding federal excise taxes, adjusted for inflation0.500.32
 Extensiveness of laws restricting youth access to tobacco
(total Alciati score)†
 Per capita tobacco control funding (in dollars), adjusted for inflation3.382.48
 Number of location bans on cigarette use (range 0–9)‡0.690.97
Dependent variables Percentage n
 Support for comprehensive indoor smoking bans30.831 720
 Support for comprehensive tobacco advertising bans48.249 551
Demographic control variables Percentage n
 25–3419.319 887
 35–4422.122 759
 45–5419.419 921
 55–6412.713 069
 75 or older7.57748
Female (vs male)55.857 380
 White83.485 812
 Black11.311 663
 American-Indian, Aleut, Eskimo0.9883
 Asian or Pacific Islander4.34473
Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (vs not)9.7510 029
Educational attainment
 Less than high school11.912 232
 GED (General Education Diploma)1.61,609
 High school graduate29.530 354
 Some college2828 814
 College graduate19.219 740
 At least some graduate school9.810 082
Demographic control variables Percentage n
Annual household income (in $)
 Less than 50002.12126
 10 000–12 4992.92941
 12 500–14 9992.62682
 15 000–19 9994.44574
 20 000–24 9995.85982
 25 000–29 9995.96046
 30 000–34 9995.65778
 35 000–39 9995.65723
 40 000–49 9998.78992
 50 000–59 9998.89020
 60 000–74 9999.79993
 75 000 or more23.724 411
 Do not know1.91991
 No response8.28394
Marital status
 Married57.058 620
 Divorced or separated14.214 539
 Never married21.722 272
Demographic control variables Percentage n
Employment status
 Employed65.667 478
 Retired17.217 688
 Not in labour force (other)10.110 337
Citizenship status
 Native citizen87.589 983
 Naturalised citizen5.45513
 Not citizen7.17335
Student status
 Not a student96.899 585
 Fulltime or part-time student3.13246
Has child in household 0–2 years of age20.921 535
Has child in household 3–5 years of age21.522 145
Has child in household 6–13 years of age41.542 709
Has child in household 14–17 years of age25.726 436
Current smoker19.720 246
Current smoker who has ever quit for more than 1 day14.314 751
Current smoker who quit for more than 1 day in past year7.57710
  • *Volume of exposure refers to a weighted sum of all available airings in a respondents’ media market prior to the beginning of a CPS-TUS fielding period, where the weight began with a value of 1 and decayed exponentially with a 2-month half-life.

  • †See Alciati et al.28

  • ‡The locations included in the index are public schools, private schools, public transit, restaurants, recreational facilities, health facilities, childcare facilities and/or private work sites.

  • CPS-TUS, Current Population Survey’s Tobacco Use Supplement; GDP, gross domestic product.