Table 4

Demographic predictors of MUH residents reporting each outcome in six communities across the US: stratified by subsidised housing status*

Voluntary smoke-free home rulesLive in smoke-free buildingSHS incursion (past 12 months) Prefer smoke-free building
CharacteristicsMarket-rate
(n=1044)
Subsidised
(n=439)
Market-rate
(n=969)
Subsidised
(n=413)
Market-rate
(n=803)
Subsidised
(n=295)
Market-rate
(n=691)
Subsidised
(n=288)
Smoking status
Current smoker
Current non-smoker
1.0
15.97 (9.92 to 25.41)
1.0
14.27 (7.78 to  26.18)
1.0
1.93 (1.19 to 3.13)
1.0
1.95 (0.99 to 3.86)
1.0
0.77 (0.47 to 1.26)
1.0
1.17 (0.52 to 2.64)
1.0
5.17 (3.25 to 8.21)
1.0
8.94 (4.40 to 18.17)
Child <18 years in HH
No
Yes
1.0
4.18 (1.99 to 8.79)
1.0
1.89 (0.69 to 5.22)
1.0
2.26 (1.38 to 3.76)
1.0
0.32 (0.09 to 1.19)
1.0
1.03 (0.66 to 1.60)
1.0
1.03 (0.41 to 2.57)
1.0
1.72 (1.00 to 2.96)
1.0
2.02 (0.71 to 5.72)
MUH type
Apartment Style
Other MUH
1.0
0.89 (0.58 to 1.37)
1.0
1.12 (0.47 to 2.70)
1.0
0.35 (0.25 to 0.51)
1.0
0.62 (0.26 to 1.45)
1.0
0.68 (0.49 to 0.93)
1.0
0.86 (0.41 to 1.80)
1.0
0.58 (0.40 to 0.84)
1.0
2.00 (0.80 to 5.00)
Race
White, non-Hispanic
Black, non-Hispanic
Hispanic
Other race
Missing
1.0
0.69 (0.38 to 1.23)
0.58 (027 to 1.27)
1.00 (0.32 to 3.10)
0.95 (0.22 to 4.04)
1.0
1.28 (0.60 to 2.75)
0.98 (0.34 to 2.82)
0.63 (0.15 to 2.72)
0.61 (0.05 to 7.90)
1.0
0.38 (0.20 to 0.75)
0.60 (0.28 to 1.27)
1.08 (0.47 to 2.48)
1.99 (0.70 to 5.65)
1.0
0.80 (0.37 to 1.71)
1.19 (0.46 to 3.07)
0.12 (0.01 to 1.11)
1.72 (0.07 to 44.84)
1.0
0.89 (0.55 to 1.42)
1.98 (1.00 to 3.93)
1.71 (0.77 to 3.79)
0.82 (0.27 to 2.51)
1.0
1.64 (0.88 to 3.03)
1.57 (0.65 to 3.82)
3.79 (0.69 to 21.48)
5.30 (0.29 to 97.98)
1.0
1.15 (0.69 to 1.90)
1.07 (0.50 to 2.26)
2.25 (0.73 to 6.90)
2.90 (0.66 to 12.84)
1.0
1.62 (0.79 to 3.33)
1.27 (0.41 to 3.94)
0.29 (0.07 to 1.29)
N/A
Education
<High school education
HS graduate/GED
Some college
College graduate
Graduate school
1.0
1.33 (0.58 to 
3.06)
2.06 (0.86 to 4.91)
1.50 (0.66 to 3.43)
1.50 (0.60 to 3.77)
1.0
0.88 (0.39 to 2.00)
1.13 (0.48 to 2.65)
3.58 (1.18to 10.87)
2.75 (0.58–12.99)
1.0
0.59 (0.29 to 1.20)
0.71 (0.34–1.48)
0.53 (0.26 to 1.07)
0.36 (0.17 to 0.79)
1.0
0.95 (0.45 to 2.00)
0.63 (0.28 to 1.41)
0.62 (0.24 to 1.54)
1.74 (0.54–5.37)
1.0
1.03 (0.52 to 2.07)
0.84 (0.41 to 1.70)
0.60 (0.30 to 1.19)
0.72 (0.34 to 1.50)
1.0
0.84 (0.37 to 1.89)
0.77 (0.33 to 1.81)
1.19 (0.49 to 2.89)
1.56 (0.49 to 4.95)
1.0
10.5 (0.44 to 2.49)
1.13 (0.47 to 2.76)
0.93 (0.40 to 2.18)
1.09 (0.45 to 2.69)
1.0
0.56 (0.22 to 1.40)
0.68 (0.26 to 1.76)
0.71 (0.24 to 2.06)
0.68 (0.14 to 3.38)
Sex
Male
Female
1.0
0.98 (0.64 to 1.51)
1.0
2.18 (1.19 to 3.98)
1.0
0.91 (0.64 to 1.30)
1.0
0.96 (0.56 to 1.66)
1.0
1.51 (1.08 to 2.11)
1.0
1.45 (0.82 to 2.59)
1.0
1.33 (0.92 to 1.94)
1.0
0.79 (0.41 to 1.52)
Age (years)
18–24
25–64
65+
1.0
0.62 (0.23 to 1.69)
0.47 (0.16 to 1.38)
1.0
1.80 (0.36 to 9.03)
2.25 (0.41 to 12.32)
1.0
0.39 (0.18 to 0.85)
0.66 (0.29 to 1.49)
1.0
0.22 (0.05 to 0.99)
0.54 (0.12 to 2.50)
1.0
1.23 (0.59 to 2.59)
0.50 (0.23 to 1.11)
1.0
0.6 (0.06 to 3.31)
0.24 (0.03 to 1.76)
1.0
0.46 (0.17 to 1.22)
0.71 (0.26 to 1.95)
1.0
0.44 (0.07 to 2.64)
0.42 (0.06 to 2.79)
Sample type
RDD population based
Targeted lists
1.0
0.83 (0.44 to 1.54)
1.0
0.74 (0.27 to 2.00)
1.0
0.84 (0.52 to 1.34)
1.0
0.87 (0.36 to 2.09)
1.0
0.82 (0.53 to 1.28)
1.0
1.01 (0.42 to 2.56)
1.0
1.17 (0.68 to 2.01)
1.0
2.41 (0.88 to 6.58)
Knowledge score§ 1.26 (1.15 to 1.37) 1.18 (1.05 to 1.33) 1.05 (0.97 to 1.14)1.08 (0.96 to 1.22) 1.12 (1.03 to 1.22) 1.17 (1.03 to 1.34) 1.40 (1.28 to 1.53) 1.35 (1.18 to 1.54)
Live in smoke-free building
No
Yes
NANANANA1.0
0.50 (0.35 to 0.71)
1.0
0.91 (0.53 to 1.58)
NANA
  • *n=38 were missing data on public/affordable housing status and are excluded from stratified analyses.

  • †SHS incursions reported as ‘ever’ versus ‘never’ in the past 12 months; SHS incursion outcome analysed among MUH residents who report having voluntary smoke-free home rules.

  • ‡Preference outcome analysed among MUH residents who reside in smoking-allowable buildings only.

  • §Knowledge score: models, entered as a continuous variable (score out of 10; based on responses of ‘strongly agree’ or agree’ to the statements: SHS can transfer between apartments or units in MUH buildings; landlords /building owners can legally adopt smoke-free policies; SHS can lead to lung cancer in non-smokers; SHS can cause heart disease or heart attacks among non-smokers; SHS can make asthma symptoms worse; SHS can cause ear infections; SHS can lead to respiratory illness in children; exposure to SHS while pregnant increases the chance that a woman will have a spontaneous abortion or other pregnancy or delivery problems; non-smokers breathing in SHS take in nicotine and other toxic chemicals just like smokers; and SHS can cause sudden infant death syndrome).

  • Current smokers: ‘everyday’ and ‘someday’ smokers. Non-smokers: ‘never’ and ‘former’ smokers. OR and CI’s based on Binary Logistic Regression within Generalised Linear Mixed Modelling, accounting for community clustering. Bolded entries represent statistically significant estimates at p<0.05 level.

  • GED, General Educational Development; HS, high school; HH, household; MUH, multiunit housing; RDD, random digit dial; SHS, secondhand smoking.