Table 3

Potential impact of policy interventions on stages and process of change in smoking behaviour. Based on Prochaska JO and DiClemente CC (reference 17).

Stages of change in which particular processes of change are emphasised
PrecontemplationPreparationContemplationActionMaintenance / recycling
Consciousness raising Dramatic relief Environmental re-evaluation Decisional balance = increased “pros” Self efficacy (barriers-related)Self re-evaluation Decision balance = Decreased “cons”Self liberationReinforcement management Helping relationships Counter conditioning Stimulus control 
Policy interventions Ad bans/FDA regulations Community coalitions Public education New warning labels EPA ETS classificationCounteradvertising Mandated and reimbursed nicotine addiction treatmentExcise income tax increase Clean indoor air laws Supporter focused campaigns Incentives for worksite health promotion CSAP/MNA/Synar amendment Blocking tobacco industry countermanoeuvres
  • cigar promotion

  • cigarette price lowering

  • pre-emptive legislation on clean indoor air laws