Independent variable, continuousMeanSE
% of ad valorem among excises36.4310.099
 Log form taxes0.6270.184
GDP per capita in 10 thousands2.7950.340
 Log form GDP9.8340.164
% Unemployment5.3990.488
% Female50.2420.229
% Population 15+78.1301.317
  • Statistics were adjusted for correlations within country over years. Tax structure shares in this sample are as the following: 44% had a specific uniform structure, 3% had a specific tiered structure, 36% had a mixed uniform structure, 5% had a mixed tiered structure, 10% had an ad valorem tax structure and 3% had an ad valorem tiered structure.

  • GDP, gross domestic product; HIC, high-income country.