Table 4

The association between tax structure and cigarette consumption, HIC versus LMICs, model 1

HICs (n=47)LMICs (n=31)
β (SE)β (SE)
% of ad valorem among excises0.038* (0.017)−0.338 (0.301)
Tiered0.437* (0.194)
Income0.052 (0.118)0.137 (0.206)
  • Regressions also adjusted for proportions of adults and gender, year fixed effects and unemployment rate. HIC regression additionally adjusted for the European Union (EU) dummy.

  • *P≤0.05.

  • HIC, high-income country; LMIC, low/middle-income country.