Table 1

Participant characteristics (n=2149)

Text-only warnings
(n=1078)
Pictorial warnings
(n=1071)
n(%)n(%)
Demographics
Age
 18–24 years171(16.1)152(14.5)
 25–39 years377(35.5)398(37.9)
 40–54 years338(31.8)304(29.0)
 55+ years176(16.6)195(18.6)
 Mean (SD) years39.7(13.4)39.8(13.7)
Gender
 Female548(51.2)512(48.2)
 Male507(47.4)532(50.0)
 Transgender15(1.4)19(1.8)
Gay, lesbian or bisexual173(16.3)195(18.8)
Hispanic92(8.6)89(8.5)
Race
 Black or African American484(45.8)510(48.9)
 White393(37.2)358(34.3)
 Other/multiracial134(12.7)117(11.2)
 Asian28(2.7)42(4.0)
 American Indian or Alaska Native7(0.6)11(1.0)
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander11(1.0)6(0.6)
Education
 High school graduate or less333(31.1)344(32.5)
 Some college519(48.5)502(47.4)
 College graduate156(14.6)156(14.7)
 Graduate degree63(5.9)58(5.5)
Household income, annual
 US$0–$24 999566(53.3)589(55.8)
 US$25 000–US$49 999272(25.6)266(25.2)
 US$50 000–US$74 999110(10.3)92(8.7)
 US$75 000+115(10.8)109(10.3)
Low income
(≤150% of Federal Poverty Level)
 No506(47.0)477(44.8)
 Yes570(53.0)589(55.2)
Trial site
 California594(55.1)592(55.3)
 North Carolina484(44.9)479(44.7)
Cigarettes smoked per day, mean (SD)8.8(6.6)8.7(7.3)
Smoking frequency
 Non-daily211(19.6)207(19.3)
 Daily866(80.4)864(80.7)
Mediators and outcome at baseline,
mean (SD)
Perceived likelihood of harm from smoking3.3(0.9)3.3(0.9)
Perceived severity of harm from smoking3.7(0.6)3.7(0.6)
Quit intentions2.2(0.9)2.3(0.9)
  • Study characteristics, mediators and outcomes at baseline did not differ by trial arm.3 Missing demographic data ranged from 0.7% to 2.2%. The baseline surveys could not assess negative affect or message reactance as participants had not yet seen the warnings.