Table 3

Means and bivariate correlations among variables in the multiple mediation model (n=2093)

Mean (SD)12345
Pictorial warnings (1)
Negative affect (2)2.25 (1.21)0.38**
Message reactance (3)2.08 (0.89)0.22**0.03
Perceived risk (4)3.55 (0.63)0.010.20**–0.24**
Quit intentions (5)2.57 (1.07)0.08**0.35**–0.15**0.23**
  • Analyses excluded 56 participants with missing data on at least one of the variables. Pictorial warnings coded as 1 (vs. text-only, coded as 0). Mediators were measured at immediate post-test (negative affect, message reactance) or the week 2 follow-up survey (perceived risk). Quit intentions were measured at week 4.

  • *P<0.05, **P<0.001.