Table 4

Proportion of past 30-day toxicant exposures attributed to waterpipe tobacco smoking varied by population and bowl parameters

ParameterSmoke volume*Tar*Carbon monoxide*Nicotine*
Population
 All54.9 (37.5 to 72.2)20.8 (6.5 to 35.2)10.3 (3.3 to 17.3)2.4 (0.9 to 3.8)
 Single users†41.2 (19.9 to 62.4)13.5 (1.7 to 25.3)6.2 (0.8 to 11.7)1.4 (0.3 to 2.6)
 Dual users‡88.1 (79.2 to 97.0)60.7 (37.4 to 84.0)40.4 (19.3 to 61.5)13.5 (4.6 to 22.3)
Sex
 Female53.9 (34.9 to 72.9)20.1 (5.1 to 35.1)9.9 (2.5 to 17.2)2.3 (0.7 to 9.9)
 Male54.5 (28.8 to 80.2)21.3 (3.8 to 38.8)10.5 (1.4 to 19.6)2.5 (0.3 to 4.6)
Race and ethnicity§
 White, non-Hispanic48.2 (30.7 to 65.8)16.8 (4.8 to 28.8)7.8 (2.2 to 13.4)1.8 (0.7 to 3.0)
 Other61.6 (33.3 to 89.9)26.8 (4.9 to 48.6)13.8 (1.6 to 26.0)3.4 (0.4 to 6.5)
Household income
 Under $30 000)47.0 (27.7 to 66.3)16.1 (3.5 to 28.6)7.5 (1.7 to 13.4)1.7 (0.5 to 7.5)
 $30 000 and above57.6 (37.7 to 77.6)23.2 (6.6 to 39.7)11.4 (2.9 to 19.9)2.7 (0.8 to 4.7)
WTS bowls
 20% increase60.5 (43.6 to 77.4)25.1 (9.1 to 41.2)12.4 (4.1 to 20.7)3.0 (1.2 to 4.8)
 10% increase58.8 (41.7 to 75.8)23.6 (8.4 to 38.9)11.6 (3.8 to 19.4)2.8 (1.1 to 4.4)
 10% decrease53.8 (36.4 to 71.1)20.0 (6.2 to 33.8)9.6 (3.2 to 16.0)2.3 (0.9 to 3.6)
 20% decrease51.1 (34.4 to 67.8)18.6 (6.2 to 31.0)8.8 (2.8 to 14.8)2.0 (0.8 to 3.3)
  • *Data represent proportions and 95% CIs based on Monte Carlo analyses with 5000 repetitions.

  • †Single users are defined as individuals who engaged in either WTS or cigarette smoking in the past 30 days.

  • ‡Dual users are defined as individuals who engaged in both WTS and cigarette smoking in the past 30 days.

  • §Race and ethnic groups were self-reported; the category ‘Other’ includes black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic and multiracial.