Table 2

Total waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking in the past 30 days according to sociodemographic characteristics*

Sociodemographic characteristicsPercentage of sampleMean waterpipe bowls smoked in the past 30 daysMean cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days
All participants100.00.4341.22
Dual users†2.77.26111.74
Sex
  Female51.00.3837.55
  Male49.00.4945.04
Age (years)‡§
 18–2021.70.5919.39
 21–2323.90.7833.43
 24–2622.80.4352.64
 27–3031.70.0753.82
Race and ethnicity‡¶
 White, non-Hispanic57.50.3746.94
 Black, non-Hispanic13.20.0835.94
 Hispanic20.30.4835.00
 Other, non-Hispanic9.01.2126.45
Educational level‡§
 High school or less39.40.4965.23
 Some college38.50.5836.49
 Bachelor’s degree or higher22.20.086.74
Household income§
 Under $30 00019.50.5673.88
 $30 000–$74 99933.60.3740.40
 $75 000 and above46.90.4328.20
  • *Data represent weighted estimates.

  • †Dual users are defined as individuals who engaged in both WTS and cigarette smoking in the past 30 days.

  • ‡Indicates a significant association between the sociodemographic variable and mean waterpipe bowls smoked in the past year. Significance determined by regression analyses and a p value <0.05.

  • §Indicates a significant association between the sociodemographic variable and mean cigarettes smoked in the past year. Significance determined by regression analyses and a p value <0.05.

  • ¶Race and ethnic groups were self-reported; the category ‘Other, non-Hispanic’ includes multiracial.

  • WTS, waterpipe tobacco smoking.