Table 4

Percent of cigarette smoking abstinence* at Wave 2 among adult dual cigarette and e-cigarette users at Wave 1† and factors associated with smoking abstinence (n=2050), PATH Study

Abstinent from cigarette smoking at W2Unadjusted PRaPR
%95% CIPR95% CIaPR95% CI
  Male13.111.1 to 15.4Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Female10.98.9 to 13.40.830.66 to 1.050.890.67 to 1.19
  18–2415.011.7 to 19.0Ref.Ref.
  25–3412.910.1 to 16.40.860.62 to 1.200.940.63 to 1.38
  35–4412.08.8 to 16.10.800.53 to to 1.73
  45–546.44.0 to 10.20.430.25 to 0.740.650.35 to 1.22
  55–6412.18.4 to 17.10.800.54 to to 1.83
  65+19.211.1 to to 2.341.380.63 to 3.02
  White, non-Hispanic11.09.2 to 13.0Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Black, non-Hispanic10.36.1 to 17.10.940.55 to 1.630.820.44 to 1.52
  Asian, non-Hispanic1.860.78 to 4.461.530.52 to 4.49
  Other, non-Hispanic0.850.45 to 1.590.830.44 to 1.57
  Hispanic21.316.2 to 27.41.941.40 to 2.691.621.09 to 2.41
  Less than HS9.15.4 to 15.00.930.44 to 1.940.910.46 to 1.79
  HS or equivalency degree9.86.2 to 15.2Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  Some college or associate’s degree11.99.2 to to 1.981.180.71 to 1.97
  Bachelor’s degree11.69.3 to to to 1.86
  More than bachelor’s degree18.513.3 to 25.11.881.01 to 3.501.530.79 to 2.99
Frequency of e-cigarette use at Wave 1
  Daily16.812.7 to 21.81.491.11 to 1.991.401.02 to 1.91
  Non-daily11.39.7 to 13.1Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Current use of other combusted products at Wave 1§
  Yes12.810.3 to to 1.441.030.74 to 1.42
  No11.59.7 to 13.7Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Current use of other non-combusted products at Wave 1¶
  Yes10.87.1 to 16.10.890.56 to 1.400.900.50 to 1.63
  No12.210.5 to 14.1Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Device type at Wave 1**
  Customisable14.211.3 to to 1.621.140.81 to 1.60
  Non-customisable11.49.6 to 13.4Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Endorsed using e-cigarettes because they help people quit smoking cigarettes††
  Yes12.110.3 to to 1.340.860.63 to 1.16
  No11.89.3 to 15.0Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Quit attempts reported at Wave 1‡‡
  Yes12.610.5 to to 1.461.070.79 to 1.44
  No11.49.3 to 14.0Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Time to first cigarette<30 min of waking
  Yes8.36.7 to 10.30.500.39 to 0.650.650.48 to 0.88
  No16.013.5 to 18.9Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Cigs smoked per day (CPD) at Wave 1
 <1516.314.0 to 19.0Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  15+7.35.4 to 9.70.460.33 to 0.650.620.43 to 0.90
Smoking initiated before age 16
  Yes10.38.5 to 12.40.680.54 to 0.850.760.58 to 0.99
  No15.212.8 to 17.9Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
  • Unadjusted PRs were estimated using only the relevant variable as a predictor variable; all variables, including demographic characteristics, are based on responses at Wave 1. Frequencies are based on unweighted data and all other estimates, including proportions and PRs are weighted.

  • (1) At Wave 2, adult current e-cigarette users (every day or some day users) were asked binary (yes/no) questions about attributes of their device (rechargeable, refillable, use of a tank system and use of cartridges). ‘Cigalikes’ were defined as either: (i) not rechargeable, not refillable; (ii) rechargeable, not refillable and uses cartridges or (iii) rechargeable, refillable and uses cartridges. ‘Tanks systems’ were defined as products that are rechargeable, refillable, use a tank system and does not use cartridges. ‘Other’ was defined as any other combination of device attribute responses. (2) At Wave 1, ‘customisable’ products were defined as products that are rechargeable, refillable and does not use cartridges (note. use of a tank was not asked at W1). All other response combinations for device attribute questions were defined as ‘non-customisable’ .

  • *Those who were current established smokers at Wave 1 and reported smoking cigarettes ‘not at all’ at Wave 2 (n=238).

  • †Dual users at Wave 1 includes those who reported current established cigarette smoking (every day or some day use and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime) and current (every day or some day) e-cigarette use.

  • ‡Relative SE >30%.

  • §Other combusted products are filtered cigars, cigarillos, traditional cigars, hookah and pipes.

  • ¶Other non-combusted tobacco products are smokeless tobacco (snus pouches, loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit or chewing tobacco) and dissolvable tobacco.

  • **Device type at Wave 1 is defined here as either customisable (rechargeable, refillable and does not use cartridges) or non-customisable (any other combination of responses to rechargeable/refillable survey items).

  • ††Current (every day or some day) e-cigarette users at Wave 1 were shown a randomised set of 13 potential reasons why they use e-cigarette and asked to indicate which reason(s) they endorse. This stated reason read, ‘Using e-cigarettes helps people to quit smoking cigarettes’.

  • ‡‡Current cigarette smokers at Wave 1 were asked, ‘In the past 12 months, have you tried to quit smoking cigarettes?’ Response options include (in a choose all that apply format): (1) Yes, I have tried to quit completely; (2) Yes, I have tried to quit by reducing or cutting back; (3) No, I have reduced or cut back instead of trying to quit; (4) No, I have not tried to quit at all. Responses were coded as ‘yes’ if a respondent selected options 1 or 2 (alone in combination with another response option).

  • aPR, adjusted prevalence ratio; HS, high school; PATH, Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health;  PR, prevalence ratio.