Table 3

The association between tax structure and cigarette consumption (n=78)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
% of ad valorem among excises0.111** (0.048)0.096*(0.038)0.085*(0.040)0.058* (0.029)
Tiered0.652*** (0.194)0.575*** (0.136)0.440*(0.185)0.343** (0.117)
Income0.430*** (0.105)0.319***(0.093)0.411***(0.097)0.277** (0.092)
Average taxes−0.119** (0.040)−0.125** (0.043)
HIC dummyNoYesNoYes
  • Regressions also adjusted for dummies for European Union (EU) and for having local taxes, proportions of adults and gender, year fixed effects and unemployment rate.

  • *P≤0.05; **P≤0.01; ***P≤0.001.

  • HIC, high-income country.