Table 1

Adjusted prevalence of exclusive RYO smoking among current smokers from 2004 to 2016, overall, and stratified by demographic subgroup

20042007201020132016Linear effect of year
Adj. %95% CIAdj. %95% CIAdj. %95% CIAdj. %95% CIAdj. %95% CIOR (95% CI), p values
Weighted n(5695)(4299)(4575)(3561)(3407)
All current smokers*5.7(5.0 to 6.4)6.3(5.4 to 7.1)6.9(6.1 to 7.8)9.8(8.5 to 11.0)10.9(9.6 to 12.1)1.07 (1.05 to 1.08), p<0.001
Stratified analysis
 Gender†
  Male7.5(6.4 to 8.7)8.1(6.7 to 9.5)7.8(6.5 to 9.0)11.6(9.7 to 13.5)12.3(10.5 to 14.1)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07), p<0.001
  Female3.4(2.8 to 4.1)4.0(3.2 to 4.8)5.8(4.8 to 6.9)7.7(6.2 to 9.1)9.2(7.6 to 10.8)1.10 (1.07 to 1.12), p<0.001
 Age group‡
  18–29 years3.0(2.0 to 4.1)3.1(1.7 to 4.5)6.7(4.7 to 8.7)11.9(8.8 to 15.1)11.6(8.7 to 14.6)1.15 (1.11 to 1.
19), p<0.001
  30–59 years6.6(5.6 to 7.6)7.2(6.1 to 8.4)7.2(6.2 to 8.2)9.3(7.9 to 10.7)11.4(9.8 to 13.0)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07), p<0.001
  60+ years7.1(5.2 to 9.0)8.3(6.2 to 10.5)6.1(4.4 to 7.7)7.9(5.8 to 10.0)8.0(6.1 to 9.8)1.01 (0.98 to 1.04), p=0.665
 SES group§
  Low SES6.3(5.2 to 7.3)6.1(4.9 to 7.3)7.7(6.4 to 9.0)9.3(7.7 to 10.9)12.8(10.9 to 14.7)1.07 (1.05 to 1.09), p<0.001
  Mid-SES5.5(4.3 to 6.6)7.0(5.5 to 8.5)7.1(5.8 to 8.4)11.1(8.8 to 13.3)9.2(7.4 to 11.0)1.06 (1.03 to 1.08), p<0.001
  High SES4.3(2.8 to 5.7)4.6(2.9 to 6.2)4.2(2.3 to 6.2)8.7(5.5 to 11.8)8.9(5.8 to 12.0)1.08 (1.03 to 1.12), p=0.001
  • *Adjusted for gender, age group and SES group.

  • †Adjusted for age group and SES group.

  • ‡Adjusted for gender and SES group.

  • §Adjusted for gender and age group.

  • RYO, roll your own; SES, socioeconomic status.