Table 3

Means, standard errors and univariate F statistics of each treatment condition on message reactions and perceived effectiveness

Comparative risk messages
Mean (SE)
Negative comparative risk messages
Mean (SE)
Univariate F statistics
Negative emotions***2.85 (0.07)4.37 (0.07)F(1, 1188)=209.44, p<0.01, ηp 2 =0.15
Positive emotions***4.74 (0.07)4.28 (0.07)F(1, 1188)=21.40, p<0.01, ηp 2 =0.02
Reactance2.37 (0.04)2.49 (0.04)F(1, 1188)=3.45, p=0.06, ηp 2 =0.00
Message novelty**4.16 (0.08)3.81 (0.08)F(1, 1188)=9.96, p<0.01, ηp 2 =0.01
Perceived message effectiveness in arousing health concerns*6.39 (0.08)6.66 (0.08)F(1, 1188)=5.76, p=0.02, ηp 2 =0.01
Perceived message effectiveness in motivating switching to e-cigarettes***6.09 (0.08)5.69 (0.08)F(1, 1188)=12.35, p<0.01, ηp 2 =0.01
  • *p<0.05.

  • **p<0.01.

  • ***p<0.001.

  • e-cigarette, electronic cigarette.