WHO identified categoriesInstrumental (activity-based) strategies
Tobacco industry strategiesTobacco advocates’ strategies
1. Manoeuvring to hijack the political and legislative process.
  • Gifting politicians.

  • BAT training members of the Nigerian police in Lagos on enforcement of tobacco legislation in Lagos state.48

  • Meeting with legislators during the legislative process.

  • Pushing for other bills aimed at destabilising civil societies working against tobacco.

  • Making donations to NGOs owned by politicians.

  • Creating legislative bottlenecks which could lead to weaker legislation by sponsoring a weaker but similar tobacco bills in the National Assembly.

  • Including problematic clauses on regulations into the bill at the last stage before presidential assent to ensure weak implementation of the bill.

  • Creating a ‘political liaison’ office which sees to the welfare of politicians.38

  • Gaining support from key top government officials including a past president and former deputy speaker of the house of representatives.

  • Publicly exposing attempts to influence governments and government agencies through donations.

  • Establishing a tobacco industry monitoring mechanism.

  • Pushing for the quick passage of the tobacco control bill by engaging the legislators.

  • Advocating and supporting strong statewide laws.

  • Using state-level laws as standards not to fall below in national laws.

  • Highlighting laws (especially state laws) with components of tobacco regulations to encourage effective implementation of such aspects of the law. For example, the Lagos state transport law forbidding smoking in public transportation.

2. Exaggerating the economic importance of the industry.
  • Outwardly supporting alternative livelihood for farmers with no real impact on tobacco growing or farmers’ conditions.

  • Calling for government to ascertain the true situation of the tobacco farming sector and to plan for alternative livelihood for tobacco farmers. For example, to ascertain the total acreage used and number of farmers in tobacco farming in Nigeria.

3. Manipulating public opinion to gain the appearance of respectability.
  • Gifting farmers and journalists.

  • Organising secret smoking parties for young people especially students.

  • Using the media for image laundering.

  • Offering scholarship to students.

  • Creating industry awards for journalists and sponsoring newspapers’ editors to conferences.

  • Subtle advertisement of tobacco industry activities in the media.

  • Sponsoring Nigerian movies and product placement in such movies.

  • Donating vehicles and computers to Nigerian Customs Service.

  • Exposing the activities of tobacco companies, including secret parties for youths, child labour in tobacco farms.

  • Sensitisation of civil society groups and holding rallies to sensitise the public about issues on tobacco control.

  • Shaming the industry highlighting its real motives.

4. Fabricating support through front groups.
  • Using of front groups to push for weaker legislation.

  • Enrolling the support of prominent citizens and using some as lobbyists.

  • Establishing the National Tobacco Control Alliance—a coalition of civil society groups working on tobacco control.

  • Engaging with the public and mobilising the support of celebrities (tobacco control champions).

5. Discrediting proven science.Unknown if strategy was used.Unknown if strategy was used.
6. Intimidating governments with litigation or the threat of litigation.Unknown if strategy was used.
  • Between 2007 and 2008, the Nigerian government and three state governments (Kano, Gombe and Lagos) sued the tobacco industry in Nigeria for marketing their products to children and for compensation for health costs for treating tobacco-related diseases.71 72

  • BAT, British American Tobacco ; NGO,nongovernmental organization.