Table 1

Weighted demographic characteristics of study sample, and prevalence of ever and current JUUL, ENDS and combustible tobacco use, by demographic and psychosocial characteristics (n=13 357)

Total sampleEver JUUL users†Sig.Current JUUL users‡Sig.Current ENDS users§Sig.Current combustible tobacco users¶Sig.
Age (%)************
 15–17 years17106117
 18–21 years191181617
 22–24 years16531218
 25–34 years4831719
Race/ethnicity (%)*NSNS***
 White, non-Hispanic56741016
 Black/African-American, non-Hispanic1342921
 Other, non-Hispanic1053811
Gender (%)NS******
Perceived financial situation†† (%)NS********
 Live comfortably3974912
 Meet needs with a little left over39621016
 Just meet basic expenses with nothing left over17531224
 Don’t meet basic expenses5631631
Sexual orientation (%)************
 Lesbian, gay, bisexual8962029
Region (%)NSNSNS*
Household combustible and ENDS use (%)************
 No one I live with smokes7754610
 Only ENDS421154928
 Only combustible tobacco16641340
 Both ENDS and combustible tobacco317143945
ENDS harm perceptions‡‡ (%)***********
 Less harmful40961718
 About the same harm3132613
 More harmful1252617
 Don’t know/refused1752518
Current combustible tobacco use¶ (%)*********
Combustible tobacco product use status§§ (%)***NS***
Sensation seeking¶¶
 Mean (SE)2.9 (0.01)3.3 (0.04)3.6 (0.05)3.2 (0.03)3.3 (0.03)
  • Sig column indicates χ2 p value comparing prevalence of product use between categories of each variable.

  • *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

  • †Ever JUUL use defined as those who responded yes to the item: ‘Have you ever smoked a JUUL vape?’.

  • ‡Current JUUL use defined as use of JUUL in the past 30 days.

  • §Current ENDS use defined as use of one or more of the following products in the past 30 days: e-cigarette, e-cigar, e-hookah, vape pipe, vape pen and hookah pen.

  • ¶Current combustible tobacco use defined as use of one or more of the following products in the past 30 days: cigarettes, large cigars, little cigars, cigarillos, hookah and pipe (with tobacco).

  • ††Perceived financial situation was measured with the item: ‘Considering all income earners in your family/your own income and the income from any other people who help you, how would you describe your family’s/your own overall financial situation, would you say you ….’

  • ‡‡ENDS harm perceptions were measured with the item: ‘Compared to regular cigarettes, do you think that e-cigarettes, e-hookah, vape pens, hookah pens and vape pipes (including JUUL) are…’

  • §§Combustible tobacco product use status was measured based on participants’ ever and past 30-day use of any combustible tobacco product (cigarettes, large cigars, little cigars, cigarillos, hookah and pipe (with tobacco)). Those who reported never using any product were coded as 0=never. Those who reported ever using any product, but not using any product in the past 30 days were coded as 1=former. Those who reported using any product in the past 30 days were coded as 2=current.

  • ¶¶Sensation seeking was measured by calculating the average of the following items: (1) I would like to explore strange places; (2) I would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned routes or timetables; (3) I like to do frightening things; (4) I like wild parties; (5) I like new and exciting experiences, even if I have to break the rules; (6) I get restless when I spend too much time at home; (7) I prefer friends who are exciting and unpredictable and (8) I would like to try parachute-jumping. Response options included 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neither, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree.

  • ENDS, electronic nicotine delivery system; NS, non-significant; Sig, significance.