Table 1

Study sample characteristics

Age (years)24.4±5.520–40
Sex (%)
Race (%)
  Black, or African-American14.7
Education (years, GED=12 years)14.5±1.712–17
Where were you when you used a waterpipe to smoke tobacco? (%) First use Past 30 days
  In a café or restaurant58.850.0
  In my own house025.0
  At a friend’s home26.525.0
  At a family member’s house5.90
  At a fraternity house00
  Dorm room00
Age at first waterpipe use (years)18.6±4.115–34
Which of the following choices best describes how often you smoke tobacco using a waterpipe? (%)
  At least once a year, but not monthly5.9
  At least once a month, but not weekly58.8
  At least once a week, but not daily35.3
  At least once a day, or most days each month0
Do you own your own waterpipe? (%)
Approximately how many times did you use a waterpipe to smoke tobacco in the past 30 days? (times)3.1±3.01–17.5
Approximately how many bowls (or heads) of tobacco did you smoke using a waterpipe in the past 30 days? (heads)4.3±4.01–20
When you used a waterpipe to smoke tobacco in the past 30 days, how long did a typical ‘waterpipe session’ last? (min)71.5±44.412.5–180
Lebanon Waterpipe Independence Scale (LWDS-11)8.5±3.23–17
Do you consider yourself ‘hooked’ on a waterpipe? (%)3
Do you now smoke cigarettes every day some days, or not at all? (%)
  Every day32.4
  Some days23.5
  Not at all44.1
How many cigarettes do you smoke in a normal day? (cigarettes)7.5±7.10–20
  • *All percent values are expressed as a fraction of the total participants (n=34).