Table 1

Categorisation of measures adapted from the Tobacco Regulatory Research Collections in the PhenX Toolkit

HAVE (Host, Agent, Vector and Environment)Coded measures
Host measuresIntrapersonal factors
  • Perceptions (risks/benefit, expectancies, norms)

  • Affect

  • Motivation for use/quitting, susceptibility

  • Dependence, craving, withdrawal

  • Cognitive functioning, stress, daily functioning, quality of life

  • Knowledge, decision making

  • Acute subjective responses to products

  • Personality, impulsivity, attention, risk taking, sensation seeking

  • Preferences (brand, flavour, sensory features)

Special populations
  • Vulnerable populations: other (gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ, income, occupation, geographic location, military, pregnant women, fetus/children/youth/elderly, etc)

Use trajectories
  • Experimentation

  • Initiation

  • Use patterns

  • Quit attempts

  • Relapse

  • Cessation

  • Use or polyuse

Biological validation/assays/biomarker  measures of exposure (eg, cotinine in serum/urine/expired CO)
  • Measures of exposure (NNAL in urine, 1-HOP, second-hand and third-hand exposures, toxins, constituents, measured in biological samples)

  • Biomarker/assay development, validation, etc.

  • Other health behaviours (eg, alcohol, physical activity)

  • Health outcomes

Agent measures
  • Product type (across or within)—eg, brand, ‘tank,’ ‘cig-alike’, cigarette, cigar, e-cig, hookah

  • Product appeal (eg, flavour)

  • Product composition: constituents, ingredients

  • Product characterisation/features: engineering (e-cigs), paper/filters (cigarettes)

  • On product marketing features (eg, packaging, branding, colour, size)

  • On product counter-marketing features: graphic warning labels

  • Topography (eg, puffing profile)

  • Tobacco product adulteration

  • History of product brands

  • Subjective measures of product characterisation (eg, GWL recall, brand recall)

Vector measuresRetail/point of sale
  • Location, neighbourhood characterisation, density/proximity

  • Price

  • Point-of-sale advertising

  • Exposure to advertising, marketing messages

  • Measures of advertising, marketing messages

  • Price promotions, coupons, discounting

  • Sponsorship, public relation activities

  • Exposure to indirect marketing (eg, exposure to pro-tobacco messages such as smoking in the movies, TV, social media)

  • Measures of indirect marketing

  • Illicit tobacco products

Environment measuresPolicies (tobacco use restrictions)
  • Smoke-free air laws

  • Age restrictions/regulations

  • Taxation

  • Compliance with tobacco restrictions/regulation

  • Public education and communication campaigns (exposure, perceived effectiveness)

Peer, occupation and social networks
  • Social networks

  • Peer influence (use of products)

  • Family influence (house rules about smoking, parental use, parenting measures)

  • Workplace/organisational policies (eg, smoke-free air laws)

  • Communication about tobacco use

Community risk
  • Neighbourhood disadvantage, safety

  • Neighbourhood collective efficacy

  • Neighbourhood race/ethnic segregation

  • Community norms (smoking rates, perceptions of norms)

  • 1HOP, 1-hydroxypyrene; GWL, graphic warning labels; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.