Table 2B

Urine biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among non-smokers and cigarettes, waterpipe and dual smokers from cohort I and non-smokers and waterpipe tobacco smokers from cohort II

BiomarkersNon-smokersCigarette smokersWaterpipe smokersDual smokers
Cohort I urine samples
 Inflammatory mediators
 S100A8 (pg/mL, n=8–10)392.70±131.20125.00±34.79111.90±49.11133.00±25.30
 S100A9 (pg/mL, n=8–10)385.00±101.8080.06±32.55*44.96±21.51*249.80±93.39
 Uteroglobin/CC-10 (pg/mL, n=9–10)1519.00±545.901744.00±537.003721.00±1028.002757.00±864.00
 Tissue injury and repair
 Serpine1/PAI-1 (pg/mL, n=9–10)1.96±0.573.55±0.383.81±0.595.35±1.09*
Cohort II urine samplesNANA
 Inflammatory ediators
 S100A8 (pg/mL, n=22–26)307.50±74.64233.40±81.47
 S100A9 (pg/mL, n=20–29)765.50±261.60400.70±105.60
 Uteroglobin/CC-10 (pg/mL, n=21–29)744.13±176.901053.00±190.70
 Tissue injury and repair
 Serpine1/PAI-1 (pg/mL, n=24–33)1.45±0.891.24±0.41
  • Data are presented as mean±SEM. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance using multiple comparison with Tukey’s post hoc analysis for comparison between the groups in cohort I. Statistical significance of urine biomarkers between the two groups was determined by Student’s t-test in cohort II. * P<0.05.

  • *P<0.05

  • n, number of samples; NA, not applicable;PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; S100A8, S100 calcium-binding protein A8; S100A9, S100 calcium-binding protein A9.