Table 1

Sample characteristics and biomarker levels by WPT use (N=58)

Overall N=58WPT-only users n=26Dual/Poly users n=32P value
% (n)% (n)% (n)
Maternal characteristics
Age (years), M (SD)27 (5)27 (5)27 (5)0.636
Non-white race*72% (42)81% (21)66% (21)0.199
Latina ethnicity53% (31)73% (19)38% (12) 0.007
≤ High school education50% (29)38% (10)59% (19)0.113
Income < US $30 000/year38% (22)31% (8)44% (14)0.311
Unemployed40% (23)42% (11)38% (12)0.710
Unmarried83% (10)73% (19)91% (29)0.078
Unplanned pregnancy69% (40)69% (18)69% (22)0.969
Parity, M (SD)1 (1)1 (1)1 (1)0.316
Pregnancy tobacco and substance use/exposure
Any cigarette33% (19)0% (0)59% (19)NA
Any e-cigarette19% (11)0% (0)34% (11)NA
Any cigar36% (21)0% (0)66% (21)NA
Any alcohol88% (51)88% (23)88% (28)0.911
Any marijuana52% (30)23% (6)75% (24) < 0.001
Secondhand WPT exposure67% (39)69% (18)66% (21)0.085
Secondhand smoke exposure47% (27)31% (8)59% (19) 0.030
Biomarkers n = 57 n cotinine/CO = 25 /26 n cotinine/CO = 32 /31
Saliva cotinine (GM, % BLQ, ng/mL)1.52 (77%)0.71 (96%)2.77 (63%) 0.002
Breath CO (ppm, % <3 ppm)1.82 (84%)1.41 (96%)2.26 (74%)0.092
Urine VOCs (GM, % BLQ, ng/mg) n = 31 n = 16 n = 15
Benzene (PMA)0.12 (61%)0.09 (69%)0.14 (53%)0.224
Butadiene (MHBMA 1+2, –3)0.08 (68%)0.08 (63%)0.07 (73%)0.501
Ethylene oxide (HEMA)1.46 (6%)1.06 (6%)2.1 (0%)0.075
Methylating agents (MMA)11.68 (16%)8.84 (25%)15.7 (7%)0.218
Acrylonitrile (CNEMA)1.52 (55%)0.52 (69%)4.8 (40%) 0.007
Acrolein (3-HPMA)231.25 (0%)175.3 (0%)310.81 (0%) 0.040
Propylene oxide (2-HPMA)21.63 (3%)15.4 (6%)31.11 (0%) 0.039
Acrylamide (AAMA)54.76 (0%)41.1 (0%)74.33 (0%) 0.033
Crotonaldehyde (HPMMA)132.98 (0%)115.5 (0%)154.63 (0%)0.191
  • N=31 for VOCs (N=16 WPT-only users; N=15 dual/poly users). Bold values indicate statistically significant differences between WPT-only and dual/poly WPT users.

  • *Non-white race includes 21% (n=12) African American, 1.5% (n=1) Asian, 1.5% (n=1) American Indian/Alaska Native, 38% (n=22) other and 10% (n=6) mixed/unknown.

  • AAMA, 2-carbamoylethylmercapturic acid; BLQ, below the limit of quantification for theassay; CNEMA, 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid; CO, carbon monoxide; GM, geometric mean; HEMA, 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid; 3-HPMA, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid; MHBMA 1+2, –3, 1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl-mercapturic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl-mercapturic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl-mercapturic acid; MMA, methylmercapturic acid; PMA, phenylmercapturic acid; VOC, volatile organic compounds; WPT, waterpipe tobacco.