Table 4

Associations between flavour preferences, perceptions, use and biomarkers of use during preconception and pregnancy (Ns=31–57)

Specific flavourCotinine (N=57)Benzene (N=31)Butadiene (N=31)
Menthol/MintFruitMenthol/MintFruitMenthol/MintFruit
PredictorOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age1.11 (0.96 to 1.29)0.1471.05 (0.92 to 1.20)0.4271.39 (0.76 to 2.56)0.2861.40 (0.89 to 2.18)0.1421.00 (0.82 to 1.21)0.9601.08 (0.92 to 1.27)0.355
Latina ethnicity* 0.07 (0.01 to 0.59)0.014 0.17 (0.03 to 0.95)0.0430.62 (0.07 to 5.28)0.6641.55 (0.17 to 13.94)0.6961.67 (0.16 to 17.11)0.665 6.43 (1.14 to 36.31)0.035
Flavour preferences 2.12 (1.10 to 4.09)0.0250.92 (0.61 to 1.40)0.740 1.91 (1.04 to 3.53)0.0380.82 (0.48 to 1.41)0.4701.53 (0.63 to 3.70)0.3501.13 (0.77 to 1.66)0.539
Flavour perceptions
General harm0.72 (0.36 to 1.45)0.3600.96 (0.55 to 1.70)0.8971.36 (0.78 to 2.35)0.2791.14 (0.68 to 1.95)0.6320.97 (0.51 to 1.84)0.9210.66 (0.28 to 1.55)0.338
Fetal harm 0.40 (0.17 to 0.95)0.0380.74 (0.43 to 1.29)0.2910.32 (0.10 to 0.98)0.0450.50 (0.24 to 1.07)0.0750.67 (0.33 to 1.39)0.2850.77 (0.42 to 1.40)0.384
Flavoured WPT use events 0.80 (0.69 to 0.92)0.0021.04 (0.99 to 1.10)0.1310.98 (0.93 to 1.04)0.5171.07 (0.92 to 1.23)0.3831.01 (0.95 to 1.07)0.836 1.64 (1.03 to 2.62)0.038
  • Logistic regression with robust variance estimation was used for all analyses. Age, preferences, perceptions and number of WPT use events in which menthol/mint OR fruit flavours were used are continuous variables; ethnicity (1=Latina; 0=non-Latina) was dummy coded. Specific flavours (menthol/mint and fruit) indicate the flavour of focus for each regression analysis (ie, perceptions and perceptions of menthol/mint (fruit) flavoured WPT were included in the models predicting menthol/mint (fruit) flavoured WPT use events).

  • Bold font indicates statistically significant ORs.

  • *Reference category is non-Latina (0)

  • WPT, waterpipe tobacco.