Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the sample by smoking group status (N=144)

Baseline characteristicsLow-frequency users
N=69
High-frequency users
N=75
P value
GenderN (%)N (%)
 Male40 (57.9)45 (60.0)0.804
 Female29 (42.1)30 (40.0)
Hispanic
 Yes28 (40.6)32 (42.7)0.799
 No41 (59.4)43 (57.3)
Race
 White50 (72.5)47 (62.6)0.127
 Black African/American14 (20.3)14 (18.7)
 Other5 (7.2)14 (18.7)
Education
 High school or less2 (2.1)5 (8.0)0.237
 Some college or associate degree48 (69.6)52 (69.3)
 Bachelor’s degree10 (14.5)13 (17.3)
 More than bachelor’s degree9 (13.0)4 (5.3)
Have you smoked cigarettes in the past year?
 Yes31 (44.9)23 (30.7)0.077
 No38 (55.1)52 (69.3)
When did you start smoking WP in a monthly manner?
 Within past 6 months12 (17.4)1 (1.3) 0.001
 More than 6 months but less than a year13 (18.8)10 (13.3)
 More than 1 year ago44 (63.8)64 (85.4)
What is the average time you usually spend smoking WP? (minutes)
 <309 (13.0)4 (5.3) 0.020
 30–6046 (66.7)41 (54.7)
 >6014 (20.3)30 (40.0)
Where do you usually smoke WP?
 At home7 (10.0)25 (33.3) 0.003
 At a friend’s20 (28.1)19 (25.3)
 In public places (eg, a cafe, lounge, etc)42 (60.9)31 (41.3)
Do you usually share the same WP with others?
 Yes66 (95.7)66 (88.0)0.097
 No3 (4.3)9 (12.0)
Which WP tobacco produced greater smoke?*
 Preferred flavoured27 (58.7)33 (82.5) 0.044
 Unflavoured14 (30.4)4 (10.0)
 No difference5 (10.9)3 (7.5)
Preferred flavours0.230
 Grape4 (5.8)12 (16.0)
 Apple25 (36.2)21 (28.0)
 Mint14 (20.3)17 (22.7)
 Mixed flavours22 (31.9)18 (24.0)
 Others4 (5.8)7 (9.3)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
 Age21.66 (3.01)21.96 (2.93)0.536
 How many years ago did you start smoking WP for the first time in your life (even one or two puffs)?3.57 (2.79)4.58 (2.85) 0.034
 During the past 6 months, on average, how many WPs (head/bowls) you smoke per month?2.45 (1.84)9.52 (11.67) < 0.001
 eCO bassline1.91 (1.13)2.14 (1.48)0.293
 Post smoking flavoured tobacco weight†11.28 (1.40)10.53 (1.73) 0.006
 Post smoking unflavoured tobacco weight†9.84 (1.38)9.51 (1.24)0.139
  • Bold numbers indicate statistical significance at p<0.05

  • *Only 86 participants responded to this question.

  • †Presmoking weight of tobacco was 15 g for each smoking group.

  • WP, waterpipe; eCO, expired carbon monoxide.