Table 3

Associations between SHA/SHS exposure and outcome variables among never tobacco users, National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2016–2017

Electronic cigaretteConventional cigarette
Overestimation of peer use†
AOR (95% CI)
Harm perception‡
AOR (95% CI)
Curiosity§
AOR (95% CI)
Susceptibility¶
AOR (95% CI)
Overestimation of peer use †
AOR (95% CI)
Harm perception‡
AOR (95% CI)
Curiosity§
AOR (95% CI)
Susceptibility¶
AOR (95% CI)
Exposure in a public place**No exposureRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
SHA only1.83 (1.29 to 2.58)*0.63 (0.51 to 0.79)*2.64 (2.03 to 3.44)*2.26 (1.82 to 2.81)*1.69 (1.18 to 2.42)*1.57 (1.01 to 2.47)*1.91 (1.45 to 2.52)*1.51 (1.20 to 1.90)*
SHS only1.09 (0.96 to 1.22)0.89 (0.81 to 0.98)*1.62 (1.42 to 1.84)*1.36 (1.23 to 1.50)*1.28 (1.13 to 1.46)*1.61 (1.34 to 1.93)*1.54 (1.36 to 1.74)*1.11 (1.01 to 1.22)*
Both SHA and SHS1.67 (1.43 to 1.94)*0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)*2.43 (2.09 to 2.82)*2.09 (1.86 to 2.34)*1.70 (1.43 to 2.03)*1.52 (1.19 to 1.94)*1.97 (1.70 to 2.28)*1.51 (1.34 to 1.69)*
SexMaleRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Female1.34 (1.21 to 1.48)*1.69 (1.56 to 1.83)*1.05 (0.94 to 1.16)0.99 (0.91 to 1.07)1.47 (1.31 to 1.64)*1.35 (1.16 to 1.57)*1.15 (1.04 to 1.28)*0.93 (0.86 to 1.01)
Race/ethnicity††WhiteRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Black0.90 (0.77 to 1.04)0.80 (0.71 to 0.90)*1.29 (1.10 to 1.50)*0.94 (0.83 to 1.07)1.15 (0.98 to 1.35)0.47 (0.39 to 0.58)*1.23 (1.06 to 1.43)*0.99 (0.87 to 1.12)
Hispanic1.41 (1.25 to 1.60)*0.91 (0.82 to 1.00)1.49 (1.32 to 1.69)*1.44 (1.31 to 1.59)*1.61 (1.40 to 1.85)*0.56 (0.47 to 0.67)*1.46 (1.29 to 1.65)*1.72 (1.57 to 1.89)*
Other1.03 (0.88 to 1.20)1.17 (1.03 to 1.34)*1.27 (1.07 to 1.51)*1.04 (0.91 to 1.19)1.15 (0.97 to 1.37)0.72 (0.56 to 0.92)*1.42 (1.21 to 1.66)*1.09 (0.96 to 1.25)
School levelMiddle schoolRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
High school4.68 (4.23 to 5.18)*0.75 (0.69 to 0.81)1.35 (1.21 to 1.49)*1.26 (1.16 to 1.36)*4.77 (4.26 to 5.34)*0.92 (0.79 to 1.06)1.31 (1.18 to 1.45)*1.01 (0.93 to 1.09)
Household member tobacco use‡‡NoneRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
E-cigarette use (regardless of use of non-e-cigarette tobacco product)1.02 (0.76 to 1.36)0.47 (0.38 to 0.57)*1.42 (1.12 to 1.81)*1.75 (1.43 to 2.13)*0.84 (0.61 to 1.15)0.83 (0.57 to 1.20)0.85 (0.66 to 1.10)1.33 (1.09 to 1.63)*
Non-e-cigarette tobacco product use only1.01 (0.88 to 1.16)0.75 (0.67 to 0.83)*1.24 (1.08 to 1.43)*1.22 (1.09 to 1.36)*1.10 (0.95 to 1.28)0.86 (0.71 to 1.05)1.04 (0.90 to 1.19)1.20 (1.07 to 1.34)*
SHS exposure in a private space§§NoneRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Home only1.04 (0.83 to 1.29)0.81 (0.68 to 0.95)*1.17 (0.95 to 1.43)1.21 (1.02 to 1.43)*1.19 (0.93 to 1.51)0.69 (0.51 to 0.95)*1.32 (1.07 to 1.62)*1.34 (1.14 to 1.59)*
Car only1.20 (0.93 to 1.55)0.76 (0.63 to 0.91)*1.22 (0.97 to 1.53)1.38 (1.13 to 1.68)*1.33 (0.98 to 1.80)0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)*1.29 (1.03 to 1.62)*1.50 (1.24 to 1.82)*
Both home and car1.39 (1.10 to 1.76)*0.76 (0.65 to 0.89)*1.15 (0.93 to 1.43)1.09 (0.92 to 1.30)1.52 (1.18 to 1.97)*0.57 (0.43 to 0.75)*1.19 (0.95 to 1.47)1.31 (1.10 to 1.55)*
E-cigarette advertisement exposure¶¶0RefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
11.38 (1.20 to 1.59)*0.94 (0.84 to 1.04)1.38 (1.19 to 1.60)*1.28 (1.14 to 1.42)*1.40 (1.21 to 1.62)*1.16 (0.96 to 1.40)1.12 (0.97 to 1.28)1.14 (1.02 to 1.27)*
21.80 (1.55 to 2.09)*0.97 (0.86 to 1.09)1.53 (1.30 to 1.80)*1.52 (1.35 to 1.73)*1.71 (1.46 to 2.01)*1.27 (1.01 to 1.60)*1.11 (0.95 to 1.30)1.32 (1.17 to 1.49)*
32.19 (1.86 to 2.59)*1.20 (1.05 to 1.37)*1.46 (1.23 to 1.74)*1.52 (1.32 to 1.73)*2.11 (1.76 to 2.53)*1.46 (1.14 to 1.87)*1.18 (1.00 to 1.39)1.32 (1.16 to 1.51)*
42.97 (2.45 to 3.62)*1.40 (1.19 to 1.63)*1.55 (1.29 to 1.87)*1.34 (1.16 to 1.56)*2.47 (1.97 to 3.08)*1.74 (1.26 to 2.41)*1.19 (1.00 to 1.43)1.21 (1.04 to 1.40)*
Comprehensive indoor air lawsCovering both cigarettes and e-cigarettesRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Covering cigarettes only0.68 (0.59 to 0.79)*0.88 (0.78 to 0.99)*1.01 (0.87 to 1.18)1.01 (0.90 to 1.13)1.17 (1.00 to 1.37)1.16 (0.92 to 1.45)0.95 (0.83 to 1.10)1.00 (0.89 to 1.12)
None1.02 (0.90 to 1.16)0.79 (0.71 to 0.88)*1.04 (0.90 to 1.19)1.04 (0.94 to 1.16)1.48 (1.29 to 1.70)*0.86 (0.71 to 1.04)0.88 (0.77 to 1.01)0.98 (0.88 to 1.09)
Survey year2016RefRefRefRefRefRef
20171.11 (1.03 to 1.21)*1.01 (0.91 to 1.13)0.99 (0.91 to 1.07)1.19 (1.02 to 1.39)*1.15 (1.04 to 1.27)*0.98 (0.90 to 1.06)
  • Analyses for overestimation of peer use for e-cigarettes were based on 2016 data only; all other outcomes were based on pooled 2016–2017 data.

  • *P<.05.

  • †Binary variable. Individuals reporting perceived prevalence greater than the actual prevalence in their grade within their community (absolute differences) were classified as overestimating peer use of the specified product.

  • ‡Perceived harm was defined as a response of ‘Some harm’, or ‘A lot of harm’ to the question, ‘How much do you think people harm themselves when they [smoke cigarettes/use e-cigarettes] some days but not every day?’.

  • §Curiosity was assessed with the question: ‘Have you ever been curious about [using an e-cigarette/smoking a cigarette]?’ Categorical response options were ‘definitely yes’; ‘probably yes’; ‘definitely not’; and ‘probably not’. Either of the former two responses was classified as a positive indication of being highly curious.

  • ¶Susceptibility was defined as lack of a firm resolve not to use the specified tobacco product soon, in the next year, or if offered by a close friend.

  • **Past 30-day exposure to SHS and SHA in a public place was assessed by asking, ‘During the past 30 days, on how many days did you breathe [the smoke from someone who was smoking tobacco products/the vapor from someone who was using an electronic cigarette or e-cigarette] in an indoor or outdoor public place?’ Exposure was dichotomised as ‘0’ for 0 days and ‘1’ for 1–30 days.

  • ††Household member tobacco use was assessed by asking, ‘Does anyone who lives with you now smoke/use…?’ Non-e-cigarette tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco products, hookahs, pipes and bidis.

  • ‡‡Exposure to SHS in a private space was assessed by asking, ‘During the past 7 days, on how many days [did someone smoke tobacco products in your home while you were there/did you ride in a vehicle when someone was smoking a tobacco product]?’ Exposure was dichotomised as ‘0’ for 0 days and ‘1’ for 1–7 days.

  • §§Created by summing the media sources (internet, newspapers/magazines, retail stores and TV/movies) over which e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred (range: 0–4); respondents’ exposure status was coded on each medium as either: 1=exposed (responses of ‘Sometimes’/‘Most of the time’/‘Always’) or 0=non-exposed (‘Never’/‘Rarely’; or those who indicated not using the assessed medium).

  • AOR, adjusted OR; E-cigarette, electronic cigarette; Ref, reference category; SHA, secondhand aerosol; SHS, secondhand smoke.