Table 2

Correlates of reuptake among previous users at baseline (adults 18+)

P30D use at follow-up
Any TobaccoCigarettesENDSCigarsHookahSmokeless
Correlates at baseline%95% CIaOR1 95% CI%95% CIaOR1 95% CI%95% CIaOR1 95% CI%95% CIaOR1 95% CI%95% CIaOR1 95% CI%95% CIaOR1 95% CI
 Overall7.8(7.4-8.3)N/AN/A5.2(4.9-5.6)N/AN/A16(15.2-16.8)N/AN/A7.3(6.9-7.8)N/AN/A6.1(5.7-6.6)N/AN/A4.4(3.9-5.0)N/AN/A
Demographic characteristics
 Age group
 18-2425.5(23.5-27.6)----19.4(17.9-21.1)----21.3(20.0-22.7)----16.5(15.4-17.7)----11.3(10.3-12.4)----10(8.3-11.9)----
 25-3912(10.8-13.3)0.5(0.4-0.6)***8.4(7.7-9.3)0.5(0.5-0.6)***15.9(14.7-17.2)0.7(0.6-0.8)***9.2(8.3-10.2)0.6(0.5-0.7)***4.7(4.0-5.4)0.4(0.4-0.5)***6.4(5.4-7.4)0.7(0.5-1.0)*
 40-546(5.1-7.0)0.2(0.2-0.3)***3.8(3.2-4.6)0.3(0.2-0.3)***14.1(12.5-15.8)0.6(0.5-0.7)***5.8(5.1-6.5)0.4(0.3-0.5)***3(2.3-4.0)0.3(0.2-0.4)***2.8(2.0-3.8)0.3(0.2-0.5)***
 55+3.9(3.2-4.7)0.1(0.1-0.2)***2.4(2.0-2.9)0.2(0.1-0.2)***10(8.3-11.9)0.4(0.3-0.5)***3.4(2.9-4.1)0.3(0.2-0.3)***2.2(1.3-3.5)0.3(0.1-0.4)***2(1.3-3.3)0.2(0.1-0.4)***
 Sex
 Female6.7(6.1-7.4)----4.9(4.4-5.5)----15.5(14.5-16.6)----6.3(5.7-6.9)----5.8(5.2-6.5)----2.4(1.8-3.2)----
 Male9.1(8.3-9.9)1.5(1.3-1.8)***5.5(5.1-6.0)1(0.8-1.2)16.5(15.5-17.6)1(0.9-1.1)7.8(7.3-8.4)1.6(1.4-1.8)***6.4(5.7-7.0)1.2(1.0-1.4)4.9(4.3-5.6)2.5(1.8-3.5)***
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White6.6(6.0-7.1)----4.1(3.7-4.5)----16.8(15.8-17.8)----6.3(5.8-6.8)----4.2(3.7-4.8)----4.6(4.0-5.2)----
 Non-Hispanic Black11.9(10.3-13.6)1.4(1.1-1.7)**8.1(6.9-9.4)1.5(1.2-1.9)***14.1(12.2-16.3)0.7(0.6-0.9)**13.5(11.8-15.3)1.9(1.5-2.3)***12.9(11.0-15.2)2.7(2.1-3.5)***3.1(1.9-5.0)0.6(0.4-1.1)
 Non-Hispanic Other (includes two or more races)8.7(6.7-11.2)1(0.8-1.4)6.4(4.9-8.5)1.2(0.9-1.7)14.1(11.5-17.3)0.8(0.6-1.1)6.9(5.4-8.7)0.9(0.7-1.2)7.3(5.8-9.1)1.9(1.5-2.6)***4.5(2.9-6.9)0.8(0.5-1.4)
 Hispanic12.5(11.1-14.1)1.2(0.9-1.4)9.5(8.1-11.0)1.5(1.2-1.9)***15.5(13.6-17.6)0.9(0.7-1.0)10.4(9.2-11.8)1.3(1.1-1.5)**8.7(7.7-9.9)1.8(1.4-2.2)***4.5(3.2-6.3)0.7(0.5-1.1)
Sexual orientation
 Straight/Heterosexual7.8(7.3-8.3)----5.1(4.7-5.5)----15.7(14.9-16.6)----7.2(6.8-7.6)----5.8(5.3-6.3)----4.4(3.8-5.0)----
 Gay or Lesbian9.8(6.7-14.1)0.9(0.6-1.4)8.2(5.6-11.8)1.3(0.9-1.9)21.7(16.8-27.6)1.4(1.0-2.0)*8.1(5.6-11.5)0.9(0.7-1.4)10.6(7.7-14.4)1.6(1.1-2.3)*####
 Bisexual14.4(10.6-19.2)1.5(1.0-2.0)*13.7(10.1-18.1)1.6(1.1-2.2)**20.6(17.0-24.8)1.1(0.8-1.5)12.8(10.0-16.2)1.5(1.1-2.0)**10.5(8.4-13.1)1.7(1.2-2.2)**####
 Something else12.2(7.7-18.7)1(0.6-1.8)7.7(4.6-12.7)0.9(0.5-1.6)18.6(12.5-26.8)1.2(0.7-1.9)10(6.3-15.7)1.1(0.6-1.8)8.3(5.2-12.9)1.4(0.9-2.2)####
Educational attainment
 Less than high school or some high school (no diploma) or GED9.7(8.1-11.5)----7.1(6.0-8.3)----17.6(15.8-19.6)----11.1(10.0-12.4)----8.4(7.0-10.1)----6.1(4.8-7.8)----
 High school graduate—diploma9.1(7.8-10.5)1(0.8-1.3)6.6(5.7-7.6)1(0.8-1.3)17.4(15.8-19.1)1(0.9-1.2)9.5(8.3-10.8)1(0.8-1.2)9.2(8.1-10.4)1.1(0.9-1.4)5.6(4.4-7.1)0.9(0.6-1.3)
 Some college (no degree) or associate degree8.7(7.9-9.5)0.9(0.7-1.1)5.6(5.0-6.2)0.8(0.6-1.0)15.9(14.8-17.0)1(0.8-1.1)7.1(6.5-7.7)0.8(0.7-0.9)**6.7(5.9-7.5)0.9(0.7-1.2)4.6(3.7-5.6)0.8(0.5-1.2)
 Bachelor’s degree or more5.9(5.3-6.6)0.7(0.5-0.9)*3.4(2.9-3.9)0.7(0.5-0.9)**12.7(11.0-14.6)0.9(0.7-1.1)4.8(4.2-5.5)0.8(0.7-1.1)3(2.5-3.7)0.7(0.5-0.9)**2.6(2.0-3.5)0.5(0.3-0.9)*
Annual household income
 < $25,00012.2(10.8-13.7)----9(8.0-10.2)----17.3(16.1-18.5)----11.9(11.0-12.9)----9.1(8.1-10.3)----6(5.1-7.1)----
 $25,000- $74,9997.2(6.5-8.1)0.7(0.6-0.9)**4.7(4.1-5.3)0.7(0.6-0.9)***16.1(14.8-17.4)1.1(1.0-1.2)6.4(5.8-7.1)0.7(0.6-0.8)***5.4(4.7-6.1)0.9(0.7-1.1)3.7(3.0-4.6)0.8(0.6-1.1)
 ≥ $75,0006.2(5.4-7.0)0.7(0.5-0.8)***3.4(2.9-4.1)0.6(0.5-0.8)**12.7(11.0-14.6)0.9(0.8-1.1)4.8(4.2-5.4)0.7(0.6-0.8)***3.3(2.7-4.0)0.7(0.5-0.8)**3.8(2.9-5.1)1.1(0.8-1.6)
 Not reported6.4(4.9-8.3)0.7(0.5-1.0)*4.6(3.5-6.1)0.8(0.6-1.1)17.5(14.7-20.7)1.1(0.9-1.5)8(6.3-10.0)0.9(0.7-1.3)7.1(5.5-9.1)0.9(0.7-1.2)5.2(3.5-7.7)1.2(0.8-1.9)
Tobacco use correlates
Use of cigarettes
 No P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A10.5(9.4-11.7)----5(4.6-5.4)----4.7(4.2-5.3)----3.2(2.5-3.9)----
 P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A19.6(18.5-20.7)2.1(1.8-2.5)***12.6(11.8-13.4)1.9(1.7-2.2)***8.1(7.4-8.9)1.4(1.2-1.6)***6.5(5.7-7.3)1.3(1.0-1.7)
Use of ENDS
 No P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A4.6(4.2-5.0)----N/AN/AN/AN/A6.7(6.2-7.1)----5.7(5.2-6.2)----3.9(3.4-4.5)----
 P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A24.2(21.2-27.5)3.6(2.9-4.5)***N/AN/AN/AN/A13.4(12.2-14.7)1.2(1.1-1.4)**8.5(7.2-10.0)1.1(0.9-1.4)7.7(6.3-9.4)1.2(0.9-1.6)
Use of cigars
 No P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A4.8(4.4-5.2)----14.7(13.8-15.6)----N/AN/AN/AN/A5.1(4.6-5.6)----3.7(3.2-4.4)----
 P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A15.5(13.7-17.5)2.1(1.8-2.5)***22.4(20.5-24.3)1.3(1.2-1.6)***N/AN/AN/AN/A11.1(9.8-12.4)1.5(1.2-1.8)***8.4(6.9-10.2)1.5(1.1-2.1)*
Use of hookah
 No P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A4.9(4.6-5.3)----15(14.2-15.8)----7(6.5-7.4)----N/AN/AN/AN/A4.3(3.7-4.9)----
 P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A22.7(19.2-26.7)1.2(1.0-1.6)27.8(25.3-30.4)1.8(1.5-2.2)***20(17.3-23.0)1.5(1.2-1.9)***N/AN/AN/AN/A10.9(7.8-14.9)1.2(0.8-1.9)
Use of smokeless
 No P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A5.1(4.7-5.5)----15.8(15.0-16.6)----7(6.6-7.5)----6.1(5.6-6.6)----N/AN/AN/AN/A
 P30D useN/AN/AN/AN/A9(7.3-11.1)1.5(1.1-2.0)**20.1(17.1-23.5)1(0.8-1.3)11.9(10.2-13.8)1.4(1.1-1.8)**6.5(4.9-8.5)0.9(0.7-1.3)N/AN/AN/AN/A
  • The percentages and ORs in the table are based on weighted data.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘Any tobacco’=14 707.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘Cigarettes’=16 356.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘ENDS’=12 124.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘Cigars’=18 606.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘Hookah’=12 946.

  • Denominator N (unweighted number of observations) for aOR in ‘Smokeless’=7612.

  • Tobacco product types were categorised into five groups: cigarettes, ENDS (e-cigarettes at Wave 1, and e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-pipes and e-hookah at Waves 2 and 3), cigars (traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars), hookah and smokeless tobacco (loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit, chewing tobacco and snus pouches).

  • For each of the five tobacco products, and for any tobacco product, use is defined with respect to the given tobacco product/any tobacco product.

  • Previous use is defined as ever use, with no P30D use (or ever using the product, even one or two times, but not in the past 30 days).

  • P30D use is defined as using the product at least once in the past 30 days.

  • The outcome ‘reuptake’ is defined as P30D use at follow-up (vs no P30D use at follow-up) among previous users at baseline. Since no P30D use at baseline is defined with respect to each tobacco product, P30D of ‘other’ tobacco products at baseline are considered as correlates of 'reuptake' of the given tobacco product at follow-up.

  • GEE logistic regression analyses were used to assess correlates of 'reuptake' of P30D use at follow-up among previous users at baseline over a 1-year period of time (ie, Wave 1-Wave 2 and Wave 2-Wave 3), including up to two change data points per individual and statistically controlling for the correlation among observations from the same individuals. All correlates reflect baseline measurement for each wave pair (eg, when evaluating change between Wave 1 and Wave 2, the age correlate reflects a person’s age at Wave 1, and when evaluating change between Wave 2 and Wave 3, the age correlate reflects a person’s age at Wave 2).

  • 1Analyses adjusted for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, educational attainment, annual household income, each tobacco use correlate and wave.

  • #Estimates with either a relative standard error greater than 30 or a corresponding denominator less than 50 have been suppressed.

  • * p <0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001

  • aOR, adjusted Odds Ratio; CI, confidence interval; ENDS, electronic nicotine delivery systems; GEE, generalised estimating equation; N/A, not applicable; P30D, past 30-day.