Table 3

Association of smoking status with worry about COVID-19

%
(95% CI)
Model 1Model 2Model 3Interaction with post-16 qualifications*
OR
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P value
Worry about catching COVID-19
Whole sample
Never smoker43.4
(42.8 to 43.9)
Ex-smoker46.5
(45.6 to 47.3)
1.13
(1.09 to 1.18)
<0.0011.14
(1.09 to 1.19)
<0.0011.10
(1.06 to 1.15)
<0.0011.22
(1.12 to 1.33)
<0.001
Current smoker49.8
(48.7 to 50.9)
1.30
(1.23 to 1.36)
<0.0011.26
(1.19 to 1.32)
<0.0011.20
(1.14 to 1.26)
<0.0011.10
(1.00 to 1.22)
0.063
No post-16 qualifications
Never smoker43.0
(41.9 to 44.1)
Ex-smoker49.0
(47.7 to 50.4)
1.28
(1.19 to 1.37)
<0.0011.27
(1.18 to 1.36)
<0.0011.24
(1.15 to 1.33)
<0.001
Current smoker51.3
(49.1 to 52.2)
1.40
(1.29 to 1.51)
<0.0011.31
(1.21 to 1.42)
<0.0011.26
(1.16 to 1.36)
<0.001
Post-16 qualifications
Never smoker43.5
(42.9 to 44.2)
Ex-smoker44.9
(43.8 to 45.9)
1.06
(1.00 to 1.11)
0.0331.07
(1.02 to 1.13)
0.0061.04
(0.98 to 1.09)
0.178
Current smoker48.4
(46.9 to 49.9)
1.22
(1.14 to 1.30)
<0.0011.22
(1.14 to 1.30)
<0.0011.17
(1.10 to 1.25)
<0.001
Significant stress about catching COVID-19
Whole sample
Never smoker16.8
(16.4–17.3)
Ex-smoker19.9
(19.2–20.6)
1.23
(1.17–1.29)
<0.0011.22
(1.16 to 1.29)
<0.0011.15
(1.09 to 1.22)
<0.0011.07
(0.96 to 1.20)
0.211
Current smoker26.3
(25.4–27.3)
1.77
(1.67–1.87)
<0.0011.56
(1.47 to 1.66)
<0.0011.43
(1.35 to 1.52)
<0.0011.00
(0.89 to 1.13)
0.998
Worry about becoming seriously ill from COVID-19
Whole sample
Never smoker44.0
(43.4–44.5)
Ex-smoker48.8
(48.0–49.6)
1.21
(1.17–1.26)
<0.0011.25
(1.20 to 1.30)
<0.0011.19
(1.14 to 1.24)
<0.0011.04
(0.95 to 1.14)
0.395
Current smoker49.2
(48.1–50.3)
1.23
(1.18–1.30)
<0.0011.23
(1.17 to 1.29)
<0.0011.15
(1.09 to 1.21)
<0.0011.08
(0.97 to 1.19)
0.168
Significant stress about becoming seriously ill from COVID-19
Whole sample
Never smoker20.4
(20.0–20.9)
Ex-smoker24.7
(24.0–25.4)
1.28
(1.22–1.34)
<0.0011.31
(1.24 to 1.37)
<0.0011.22
(1.16 to 1.28)
<0.0011.01
(0.91 to 1.12)
0.880
Current smoker29.4
(28.4–30.4)
1.62
(1.53–1.71)
<0.0011.49
(1.40 to 1.57)
<0.0011.34
(1.27 to 1.43)
<0.0011.09
(0.97 to 1.23)
0.156
  • All data are weighted to match the UK adult population on sex, age, ethnicity, education and country of living.

  • Model 1 is unadjusted. Model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, post-16 qualifications, key worker status and survey date. Model 3 is adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, post-16 qualifications, key worker status, survey date, comorbid health conditions and diagnosed anxiety disorders.

  • *Interaction between smoking status and post-16 qualifications added to fully adjusted model with the exclusion of key worker status.

  • ORadj, adjusted OR.