Table 4

Association of smoking status with adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviours

%
(95% CI)
Model 1Model 2Model 3Interaction with post-16 qualifications*
OR
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P valueORadj
(95% CI)
P value
General adherence
Whole sample
Never smoker96.6
(96.4 to 96.8)
Ex-smoker96.8
(96.5 to 97.1)
1.07
(0.96 to 1.20)
0.2231.00
(0.89 to 1.12)
0.9801.00
(0.89 to 1.13)
0.9771.43
(1.14 to 1.81)
0.002
Current smoker94.3
(93.8 to 94.8)
0.59
(0.53 to 0.66)
<0.0010.69
(0.62 to 0.78)
<0.0010.70
(0.62 to 0.78)
<0.0011.35
(1.07 to 1.71)
0.012
No post-16 qualifications
Never smoker94.5
(94.0 to 95.0)
Ex-smoker95.8
(95.2 to 96.3)
1.31
(1.11 to 1.54)
0.0011.12
(0.94 to 1.33)
0.2021.12
(0.94 to 1.33)
0.192
Current smoker92.9
(92.0 to 93.6)
0.75
(0.64 to 0.88)
<0.0010.80
(0.68 to 0.94)
0.0070.80
(0.68 to 0.95)
0.009
Post-16 qualifications
Never smoker97.3
(97.1 to 97.5)
Ex-smoker97.4
(97.1 to 97.8)
1.05
(0.90 to 1.23)
0.5150.90
(0.76 to 1.06)
0.1880.90
(0.77 to 1.06)
0.208
Current smoker95.6
(95.0 to 96.2)
0.61
(0.52 to 0.73)
<0.0010.60
(0.51 to 0.71)
<0.0010.60
(0.51 to 0.71)
<0.001
Living life as normal
Whole sample
Never smoker3.6
(3.4 to 3.8)
Ex-smoker3.1
(2.8 to 3.4)
0.84
(0.75 to 0.95)
0.0030.80
(0.71 to 0.90)
<0.0010.81
(0.72 to 0.91)
<0.0010.73 (0.58 to 0.91)0.006
Current smoker4.9
(4.4 to 5.4)
1.36
(1.21 to 1.53)
<0.0011.11
(0.98 to 1.26)
0.0891.12
(0.99 to 1.27)
0.0730.68
(0.53 to 0.87)
0.002
No post-16 qualifications
Never smoker6.4
(5.9 to 7.0)
Ex-smoker4.4
(3.9 to 5.0)
0.67
(0.57 to 0.79)
<0.0010.73
(0.62 to 0.86)
<0.0010.73
(0.62 to 0.86)
<0.001
Current smoker6.4
(5.9 to 7.2)
0.99
(0.84 to 1.16)
0.8740.92
(0.78 to 1.08)
0.2980.92
(0.78 to 1.09)
0.322
Post-16 qualifications
Never smoker2.6
(2.4 to 2.8)
Ex-smoker2.2
(1.9 to 2.6)
0.86
(0.73 to 1.01)
0.0650.86
(0.73 to 1.02)
0.0800.87 (0.73 to 1.03)0.105
Current smoker3.5
(3.0 to 4.1)
1.36
(1.13 to 1.63)
0.0011.31
(1.09 to 1.57)
0.0051.31 (1.09 to 1.57)0.005
  • All data are weighted to match the UK adult population on sex, age, ethnicity, education and country of living.

  • Model 1 is unadjusted. Model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, post-16 qualifications, key worker status and survey date. Model 3 is adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, post-16 qualifications, key worker status, survey date and comorbid health conditions.

  • *Interaction between smoking status and post-16 qualifications added to fully adjusted model with the exclusion of key worker status.

  • †General adherence to recommendations from authorities to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (score of ≥5/7).

  • ‡Versus cutting down on usual activities, staying at home and/or self-isolating.

  • ORadj, adjusted OR.