Table 2

Regression results: all countries

L.MPOWER Score−0.095 (−0.300 to 0.111)
L.Tax Rate−0.055* (−0.115 to 0.005)−0.054* (−0.116 to 0.008)
L.MPOWE Score−0.027 (−0.248 to 0.195)
Constant21.280*** (16.101 to 26.458)22.131*** (19.177 to 25.085)22.564*** (17.892 to 27.236)
Number of countries117117117
Year fixed effectsYesYesYes
Country fixed effectsYesYesYes
  • 95% CIs in parentheses. ***p<0.01, *p<0.10. By definition, MPOWER Score ranges from 7 to 34, and MPOWE Score ranges from 6 to 29. The regression sample includes countries for which at least 2009 and 2017 prevalence, and 2008 and 2016 MPOWER and tax measures are available. SEs are clustered at WHO region—initial condition level. The Hausman test suggests that the random effects estimates are inconsistent, meaning country-specific effects are correlated with other covariates and are required to be controlled for in the model.