Table 2

Exposure to smoking imagery or messaging and smoking behaviour

Characteristicn (%)Ever smokers (%)Model 1* Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueModel 2†
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
P value
Class on health hazards of tobacco0.003
 Yes7917 (20.2)243 (3.1)1
 No17 284 (44.0)363 (2.1)0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)
 Not sure14 081 (35.8)308 (2.2)0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)
Participated in antitobacco activity<0.001<0.001
 Yes7675 (19.5)288 (3.8)11
 No31 607 (80.5)626 (2.0)0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)
Heard or seen antitobacco media messages<0.001‡<0.001‡
 None14 106 (35.9)291 (2.1)11
 1–510 291 (26.2)143 (1.4)0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)0.7 (0.5 to 0.8)
 6–103597 (9.2)184 (5.1)1.8 (1.4 to 2.4)1.7 (1.4 to 2.2)
 >1011 288 (28.7)296 (2.6)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)
Exposure to tobacco advertisements0.442
 Yes30 111 (76.7)743 (2.5)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
 No9171 (23.3)171 (1.9)1
Exposure to tobacco interval in movies<0.001‡<0.001‡
 0584 (1.5)7 (1.2)11
 1–4812 079 (30.7)363 (3.0)1.2 (0.6 to 2.7)1.2 (0.5 to 2.6)
 49–8313 277 (33.8)270 (2.0)0.9 (0.4 to 1.9)0.9 (0.4 to 1.9)
 >8313 342 (34.0)274 (2.1)0.8 (0.3 to 1.7)0.7 (0.3 to 1.6)
  • *Model 1. All p<0.05 after adjustment for age, gender, father’s education, family members smoking, friends smoking, wealth quintile, rebelliousness, self-esteem and school performance.

  • †Model 2. Mutually adjusted with exclusion of non-significant (NS) variables in this table.

  • ‡P value for trend.