Table 1

Demographic and environmental associations with smoking in the study population, with univariate and independently significant mutually adjusted ORs

Characteristicn (%)Ever smokers (%)Crude ORP valueAdjusted OR*P value
(95% CI)(95% CI)
Age<0.0010.510
 10217 (0.6)9 (4.1)11
 115760 (14.7)161 (2.8)0.7 (0.3 to 1.3)1.9 (0.6 to 6.1)
 1212 932 (32.9)328 (2.5)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)1.7 (0.5 to 5.4)
 1313 247 (33.7)277 (2.1)0.5 (0.3 to 1.0)1.7 (0.5 to 5.4)
 146671 (17.0)117 (1.8)0.4 (0.2 to 0.8)1.4 (0.5 to 4.6)
 15455 (1.2)22 (4.8)1.2 (0.5 to 2.6)2.0 (0.5 to 7.2)
Gender<0.0010.003
 Male20 020 (51.0)597 (3.0)1.8 (1.6 to 2.1)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)
 Female19 262 (49.0)317 (1.6)11
School locality0.773
 Urban7803 (19.9)185 (2.4)1.02 (0.9 to 1.2)
 Rural31 479 (80.1)729 (2.3)1
School type<0.0010.108
 Government16 786 (42.7)416 (2.5)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)1.2 (1.0 to 1.6)
 Aided7584 (19.3)227 (3.0)1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)
 Private14 912 (38.0)271 (1.8)11
Religion<0.0010.068
 Hindu32 713 (83.3)710 (2.2)11
 Christian2016 (5.1)51 (2.5)1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)
 Jain152 (0.4)7 (4.6)2.2 (1.0 to 4.7)1.7 (0.6 to 5.2)
 Muslim4272 (10.9)138 (3.2)1.5 (1.3 to 1.8)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)
 Other129 (0.3)8 (6.2)3.0 (1.5 to 6.1)1.6 (0.6 to 4.2)
Home smoking tobacco use allowed<0.001<0.001
 No35 400 (90.1)588 (1.7)11
 Yes3882 (9.9)326 (8.4)5.4 (4.7 to 6.2)2.8 (2.3 to 3.4)
Family smoking tobacco use
 Father: Yes4226 (10.8)258 (6.1)3.4 (2.9 to 3.9)<0.0011.9 (1.5 to 2.3)<0.001
  No35 056 (89.2)656 (1.9)11
 Mother: Yes386 (1.0)99 (25.7)16.1 (12.7 to 20.5)<0.0015.0 (3.4 to 7.2)<0.001
  No38 896 (99.0)815 (2.1)11
 Siblings: Yes721 (1.8)127 (17.6)10.3 (8.4 to 12.6)<0.0013.1 (2.2 to 4.2)<0.001
  No38 561 (98.2)787 (2.0)11
 Others: Yes6119 (15.6)160 (2.6)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)0.104
  No33 163 (84.4)754 (2.3)1
Friends smoking tobacco use<0.001<0.001
 None34 430 (87.6)352 (1.0)11
 One763 (1.9)132 (17.3)20.3 (16.3 to 25.1)10.8 (8.1 to 14.4)
 Two492 (1.3)137 (27.9)37.4 (29.9 to 46.7)16.5 (12.2 to 22.4)
 Three579 (1.5)121 (20.9)25.6 (20.4 to 32.0)11.9 (8.7 to 16.2)
 Not sure3018 (7.7)172 (5.7)5.9 (4.9 to 7.0)4.0 (3.1 to 5.0)
Smoking seen in school<0.0010.926
 No28 218 (71.8)545 (1.9)11
 Yes11 064 (28.2)369 (3.3)1.8 (1.5 to 2.0)1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)
Mother’s education<0.0010.425
 Illiterate2457 (6.4)94 (3.8)4.3 (2.5 to 7.7)1.1 (0.6 to 2.4)
 Primary16 255 (42.0)407 (2.5)2.8 (1.6 to 4.8)0.9 (0.5 to 1.8)
 High school14 466 (37.4)325 (2.2)2.5 (1.5 to 4.3)1.1 (0.6 to 2.1)
 Graduate3964 (10.2)53 (1.3)1.4 (0.8 to 2.7)1.0 (0.5 to 2.0)
 Postgraduate1554 (4.0)14 (0.9)11
Father’s education<0.0010.013
 Illiterate1757 (4.6)79 (4.5)7.0 (12.5 to 3.9)2.8 (1.4 to 5.4)
 Primary16 018 (41.5)410 (2.6)3.9 (6.7 to 2.3)2.6 (1.4 to 4.9)
 High school14 535 (37.7)326 (2.2)3.4 (5.9 to 2.0)2.9 (1.6 to 5.4)
 Graduate4129 (10.7)67 (1.6)2.5 (4.4 to 1.4)2.5 (1.3 to 4.8)
 Postgraduate2106 (5.5)14 (0.7)11
Wealth quintile<0.001<0.001
 Lower7735 (19.7)331 (4.3)2.8 (2.3 to 3.4)2.7 (2.1 to 3.6)
 Lower middle7315 (18.6)180 (2.5)1.6 (1.3 to 2.0)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)
 Middle8464 (21.6)171 (2.0)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)
 Upper middle7855 (20.0)106 (1.3)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)
 Upper7867 (20.1)124 (1.6)11
Rebelliousness<0.001<0.001
 No24 500 (62.4)311 (1.3)11
 Mild10 917 (27.8)260 (2.4)1.9 (1.6 to 2.2)1.7 (1.4 to 2.1)
 Moderate3396 (8.6)267 (7.9)6.6 (5.7 to 7.9)3.8 (3.0 to 4.8)
 Severe469 (1.2)76 (16.2)15.0 (11.5 to 19.7)6.4 (4.4 to 9.5)
High self-esteem<0.0010.001
 Strongly agree18 169 (46.3)280 (1.54)11
 Agree8799 (22.4)240 (2.7)1.8 (1.5 to 2.1)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)
 Neither agree or disagree6817 (17.4)191 (2.8)1.8 (1.5 to 2.2)1.2 (1.0 to 1.6)
 Disagree3099 (7.9)123 (4.0)2.6 (1.7 to 3.3)1.8 (1.4 to 2.4)
 Strongly disagree2398 (6.1)80 (3.34)2.2 (2.1 to 2.8)1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)
School performance<0.0010.001
 Excellent15 046 (38.3)253 (1.7)11
 Good17 993 (45.8)342 (1.9)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
 Average5337 (13.6)249 (4.7)2.9 (2.4 to 3.4)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)
 Below average906 (2.3)70 (7.7)4.9 (3.7 to 6.4)1.9 (1.3 to 2.8)
  • *All p<0.05 after adjustment for gender, father’s education, family members smoking, friends smoking, wealth quintile, rebelliousness, self-esteem and school performance.

  • NS, not significant in mutually adjusted model.