Table 2

Smoking message elements’ impact, n=810

Message elementPrimary outcomeSecondary outcomes from Tobacco Warnings ModelOther outcomes
Perceived effectivenessAttentionCognitive elaborationNegative affectSocial interactionsPerceived harmPerceived effectiveness, vapingCognitive elaboration, vapingReactance
BBBBBBBBB
Traditional harms
 1 harm versus absent0.73***0.330.67***0.49**0.080.44*0.60***0.54**0.02
 3 harms versus absent0.86***0.43*0.81***0.58***0.40*0.61***0.57***0.64***0.09
COVID-19 harm
 1 harm versus absent0.82***0.55***0.78***0.66***0.56***0.46**0.55***0.63***0.19
Traditional 1 harm × COVID-19−0.77***−0.30−0.57**−0.53**−0.09−0.41*−0.64**−0.49*−0.03
Traditional 3 harms × COVID-19−0.86***−0.50*−0.76***−0.66***−0.47*−0.61**−0.52**−0.60**−0.13
  • Bs are unstandardised regression coefficients on standardised dependent variables. Bold indicates statistically significant effects. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.