Table 3

Vaping message elements’ impact, n=810

Message elementPrimary outcomeSecondary outcomes from Tobacco Warnings ModelOther outcomes
Perceived effectivenessAttentionCognitive elaborationNegative affectSocial interactionsPerceived harmPerceived effectiveness, smokingCognitive elaboration, smokingReactance
Traditional harms
 1 harm versus absent0.24**0.20*0.25**0.25**0.140.27**0.28**0.25**0.17
 3 harms versus absent0.18*0.110.19*0.20*0.100.26**0.19*0.20*0.13
COVID-19 harm
 1 harm versus absent0.−0.01−0.030.09−0.030.14
  • Bs are unstandardised regression coefficients on standardised dependent variables. Two-way interactions between traditional health harms and COVID-19 harm were not statistically significant in initial models and so were removed from the final models. Bold indicates statistically significant effects. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.