Table 3

Descriptive statistics of variables used in the first-stage regression

Unit value, cigarettes57750.9930.3800.3122.472
Budget share, cigarettes57750.0460.0370.0000.496
Total expenditure5775756.128389.69863.9882900.703
Household size57753.4971.8311.00056.000
Male ratio*57750.5050.2450.0001.000
Adult ratio*57750.8810.1890.2501.000
Mean of years of education577510.6761.7660.00020.000
Maximum education577514.1322.5460.00020.000
Household type*
Whole sample
Unit value, cigarettes (ln)57750.9930.3800.3122.472
Budget share, cigarettes12 5030.0210.0340.0000.496
Total expenditure (ln)12 503689.281387.07133.6872630.04
Household size (ln)12 5033.2061.7921.00056.000
Male ratio*12 5030.4640.2710.0001.000
Adult ratio*12 5030.8890.1880.2001.000
Mean of years of education12 50310.0622.8840.00020.000
Maximum education12 50311.9243.1590.00020.000
Household type*
 Unemployed12 5030.0340.1810.0001.000
 Pensioners12 5030.2500.4330.0001.000
 Employed12 5030.7160.4510.0001.000
  • Author’s calculation based on the Household Budget Survey data.

  • T statistics difference between variables means: budget share t=−94.733121; total expenditure t=−17.645353; household size t=−16.984248; male ratio t=−16.344199; adult ratio t=4.2696627; mean education t=−5.2837905; max education=−10.555047; employed t=−0.79802037; pensioners t=14.127229 and unemployed t=−13.193474.

  • *Adult ratio represents percentage of adults in household, including members aged 15 or more. Male ratio represents percentage of males in household. We controlled for the household economic activity by splitting households into three groups: (1) unemployed (each member unemployed), (2) pensioners (no employees, only pensioners), (3) employed (at least one member employed- person in paid employment).