Table 3

Descriptive statistics of variables used in the first-stage regression

 Observations Mean SD Min Max Consumers Unit value, cigarettes 5775 0.993 0.380 0.312 2.472 Budget share, cigarettes 5775 0.046 0.037 0.000 0.496 Total expenditure 5775 756.128 389.698 63.988 2900.703 Household size 5775 3.497 1.831 1.000 56.000 Male ratio* 5775 0.505 0.245 0.000 1.000 Adult ratio* 5775 0.881 0.189 0.250 1.000 Mean of years of education 5775 10.676 1.766 0.000 20.000 Maximum education 5775 14.132 2.546 0.000 20.000 Household type* Unemployed 5775 0.035 0.185 0.000 1.000 Pensioners 5775 0.192 0.394 0.000 1.000 Employed 5775 0.772 0.419 0.000 1.000 Whole sample Unit value, cigarettes (ln) 5775 0.993 0.380 0.312 2.472 Budget share, cigarettes 12 503 0.021 0.034 0.000 0.496 Total expenditure (ln) 12 503 689.281 387.071 33.687 2630.04 Household size (ln) 12 503 3.206 1.792 1.000 56.000 Male ratio* 12 503 0.464 0.271 0.000 1.000 Adult ratio* 12 503 0.889 0.188 0.200 1.000 Mean of years of education 12 503 10.062 2.884 0.000 20.000 Maximum education 12 503 11.924 3.159 0.000 20.000 Household type* Unemployed 12 503 0.034 0.181 0.000 1.000 Pensioners 12 503 0.250 0.433 0.000 1.000 Employed 12 503 0.716 0.451 0.000 1.000
• Author’s calculation based on the Household Budget Survey data.

• T statistics difference between variables means: budget share t=−94.733121; total expenditure t=−17.645353; household size t=−16.984248; male ratio t=−16.344199; adult ratio t=4.2696627; mean education t=−5.2837905; max education=−10.555047; employed t=−0.79802037; pensioners t=14.127229 and unemployed t=−13.193474.

• *Adult ratio represents percentage of adults in household, including members aged 15 or more. Male ratio represents percentage of males in household. We controlled for the household economic activity by splitting households into three groups: (1) unemployed (each member unemployed), (2) pensioners (no employees, only pensioners), (3) employed (at least one member employed- person in paid employment).