Table 3

First-stage regression results

VariablesUnit value (per pack, ln)Cigarettes budget share (in %)
Total expenditure (ln)0.114***(0.003)0.002***(0.001)
Household size (ln)−0.060***(0.003)0.003***(0.001)
Male ratio−0.026***(0.005)0.018***(0.001)
Adult ratio−0.040***(0.008)0.013***(0.002)
Mean education0.007***(0.001)0.000(0.000)
Maximum education0.001(0.001)−0.001***(0.000)
Rural settlements−0.023***(0.003)0.002***(0.001)
Household type
 Employedomitted
 Unemployed0.014**(0.006)0.003**(0.001)
 Pensioners−0.030***(0.003)−0.014***(0.001)
 Self-employed0.002(0.004)−0.003***(0.001)
Cluster dummiesF(1671, 22461)F(1822, 60056)
42.513***2.459***
Constant3.198***(0.030)0.021***(0.008)
Observations24 14361 889
R2 0.7800.105
  • Standard errors in parentheses ***p<0.01, **p<0.05, *p<0.1. Authors’ calculation based on the Household Budget Survey data.