Table 3

Measures of tobacco retailer density/proximity across included studies

StudyDensity in egocentric neighbourhoods around homesProximity from home to outletDensity in administrative unitsProximity from census area centroid to tobacco outletDensity in egocentric neighbourhoods around schoolsProximity from school to tobacco outletDensity in egocentric neighbourhoods of activity spacesProximity from active spaces to tobacco outlet
Adults
Current smoking
 Barnes et al36x
 Shareck et al29xxxx
 Pearce et al38x
 Pearce et al32x
 Marashi-Pour et al3x
 Kirst et al27x
 Chuang et al*46xxx
Smoking initiation
 Cantrell et al43x
Thirty-day abstinence
 Cantrell et al45xx
 Fleischer et al26xx
Six-month quit intentions/quit attempts
 Kirchner et al51x
 Chaiton et al25xx
Smoking cessation
 Shareck et al28xxxx
 Halonen et al35xx
 Pulakka et al34x
Former smoker status
 Pearce et al38x
Relapse
 Pulakka et al34x
 Chaiton et al25xx
 Fleischer et al26xx
Youth
Current smoking
   Lipperman-Kreda et al49xxxx
 Lipperman-Kreda et al53x
 Shortt et al39xx
 Pokorny et al55x
 Novak et al4x
 Loomis et al9x
 Chan and Leatherdale30x
 Adams et al47x
 Scully et al37x
 McCarthy et al50xx
 Marsh et al33x
 Lipperman-Kreda et al48x
 Trapl et al42xx
Lifetime smoking
  Schleicher et al8xxx
 Shortt et al39xx
 Adachi-Mejia et al52xx
 Lipperman-Kreda et al54x
 Lipperman-Kreda et al53x
 Adams et al47x
Experimental smoking
 McCarthy et al50xx
 Marsh et al33x
Smoking initiation
 Pokorny et al55x
Susceptibility to smoking
 Loomis et al9x
 Chan and Leatherdale30x
 Marsh et al33x
Current and lifetime e-cigarette use
 Giovenco et al41x
 Bostean et al40x
 Cole et al31xx
Initiation of alternative/non-combustible tobacco products (including e-cigarettes)
 Cantrell et al43xx
 Abdel Magid et al44x
  • *Level of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked per day) used as an outcome.