Table 1

Associations of exposure to claims that ‘smoking/alcohol drinking can protect against COVID-19’ with changes in tobacco and alcohol drinking consumption (‘no change’ as base outcome)

Changes in consumption,
unweighted n (weighted %)*
Reduced consumption,
OR (95% CI)
Increased consumption,
OR (95% CI)
No changeReducedIncreasedModel 1†Model 2‡Model 1†Model 2‡
Tobacco smoking (N=280)
Exposure to the claims
 No140 (77.1)35 (75.1)31 (66.8)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Yes43 (22.9)14 (24.9)17 (33.3)1.30 (0.63 to 2.69)1.32 (0.63 to 2.78)2.16 (1.04 to 4.49)§2.37 (1.08 to 5.20)§
Home isolation (0–7 days)
 Mean±SD3.2±1.83.7±1.84.0±1.71.19 (0.98 to 1.43)1.19 (0.97 to 1.45)1.19 (0.98 to 1.44)1.29 (1.04 to 1.61)§
PHQ-4 score (0–16)
 Mean±SD7.0±2.38.0±2.48.8±3.21.20 (1.05 to 1.37)¶1.20 (1.05 to 1.37)¶1.30 (1.13 to 1.49)**1.26 (1.09 to 1.45)¶
Alcohol drinking (N=722)
Exposure to the claims
 No364 (80.9)190 (79.7)23 (60.1)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Yes72 (19.1)54 (20.3)19 (39.9)1.22 (0.81 to 1.84)1.27 (0.84 to 1.94)4.30 (2.15 to 8.60)**4.16 (2.00 to 8.67)**
Home isolation (0–7 days)
 Mean±SD3.4±1.73.5±1.84.1±1.91.04 (0.95 to 1.14)1.03 (0.94 to 1.14)1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)§1.28 (1.05 to 1.57)§
PHQ-4 score (0–16)
 Mean±SD7.0±2.36.8±2.48.8±3.30.94 (0.88 to 1.01)0.94 (0.88 to 1.01)1.31 (1.16 to 1.47)¶1.26 (1.10 to 1.44)¶
  • *Weighted by sex, age and education of the general adult population in Hong Kong.

  • †Adjusted for survey method, sex, age and education level.

  • ‡Adjusted for survey method, sex, age, education level, tobacco/alcohol use status and other variables in the table.

  • §p<0.05.

  • ¶p<0.01.

  • **p<0.001.

  • PHQ-4, Patient Health Questionnaire-4.