Table 2

Effect of e-liquid flavouring on all outcomes

Linear regressions (continuous outcomes)
OutcomeUnadjustedAdjusted
b (95% CI)P valueb (95% CI)P value
Cigarette craving (average)0.18 (−0.44 to 0.79)0.5680.18 (−0.45 to 0.81)0.573
Cigarette craving (peak)−0.12 (−0.59 to 0.35)0.616−0.02 (−0.50 to 0.46)0.934
Cue-elicited cigarette craving−0.21 (−3.86 to 3.43)0.9070.78 (−3.04 to 4.60)0.685
Enjoyment of e-cigarette0.33 (−0.07 to 0.74)0.1070.30 (−0.14 to 0.74)0.177
Ease of transitioning to using e-cigarette−0.19 (−0.66 to 0.28)0.422−0.20 (−0.69 to 0.29)0.423
Intentions to continue using e-cigarette−0.17 (−0.60 to 0.27)0.446−0.38 (−0.80 to −0.05)0.085
Intentions to quit smoking0.21 (−0.28 to 0.71)0.393−0.05 (−0.48 to 0.39)0.830
Motivation to quit smoking0.12 (−0.74 to 0.98)0.784−0.30 (−1.07 to 0.48)0.449
Sweet food craving (average)0.40 (−0.13 to 0.94)0.37 (−0.18 to 0.92)
Sweet food craving (peak)0.57 (−0.01 to 1.15)0.66 (0.05 to 1.27)
Savoury food craving (average)−0.06 (−0.57 to 0.45)−0.03 (−0.58 to 0.52)
Savoury food craving (peak)−0.10 (−0.55 to 0.36)−0.05 (−0.54 to 0.43)
Logistic regressions (binary outcomes)
OutcomeUnadjustedAdjusted
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Smoking lapse occurrence0.83 (0.25 to 2.73)0.7631.01 (0.29 to 3.55)0.985
Return to smoking0.70 (0.27 to 1.83)0.4641.19 (0.40 to 3.59)0.755
Continuation of use (past week)1.54 (0.24 to 9.71)0.6471.15 (0.15 to 8.64)0.895
Continuation of use (future)4.32 (0.46 to 40.35)0.2003.32 (0.31 to 35.70)0.321
  • N=84. Condition code: unflavoured=0, flavoured=1. Unstandardised b coefficients.

  • Adjusted: adjusted for age, gender, cigarettes per day, cigarette dependence and quit motivation (baseline characteristics).

  • P values are not reported for exploratory analyses as (by definition) there was no hypothesis testing.

  • Primary measures: cigarette craving (average): mean average daily cigarette craving score (0 ‘strongly disagree’ to 7 ‘strongly agree’); cigarette craving (peak): highest daily cigarette craving score; cue-elicited cigarette craving: Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief change scores (post-task minus pre-task).

  • Secondary measures: enjoyment of e-cigarette (1 ‘not at all’ to 5 ‘a great deal’), ease of transitioning to using e-cigarette (1 ‘very difficult’ to 5 ‘very easy’), intentions to continue using e-cigarette and intentions to quit smoking (1 ‘definitely not’ to 5 ‘definitely’), motivation to quit smoking (Readiness to Quit Ladder), and sweet and savoury food cravings (1 ‘strongly disagree’ to 7 ‘strongly agree’).

  • Binary outcomes were scored as 0=no and 1=yes.

  • e-cigarette, electronic cigarette.