Table 1

Independent studies of illicit cigarette markets over the past decade

Author and year of publicationYears of dataGeneral methodCountryIncome groupIllicit market (% total)
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSLatviaHIC38.5
Szklo17 (2018)2014–16GABrazilLMIC36.0
van der Zee25 (2020)2017SSSouth AfricaLMIC34.6
Wang26 (2019)2012PSUSAHIC21.0
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSSwedenHIC18.5
Guindon27 (2017)2013GA/SSCanadaHIC18.0
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSBulgariaLMIC17.8
Liber28 (2015)2012PSMalaysiaHIC16.5
Paraje29 (2020)2017PSChileHIC16.3
Stoklosa30 (2014)2011SS/PSPolandHIC15.1
Depocen31 (2019)2017GAVietnamLMIC13.7
Kaplan32 (2018)2013PSTurkeyLMIC12.1
Abascal33 (2019)2017GAUruguayLMIC11.8
Heydari34 (2018)2018PSIranLMIC11.1
ITC35 (2017)2014–16PSIrelandHIC11.0
HMRC13 (2020)2014–16GAUKHIC10.7
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSRomaniaLMIC10.7
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSCzechiaHIC10.3
Chisha36 (2019)2013SS/PSGambiaLMIC8.6
Saenz de Miera Juarez37 (2019)2017SS/PSMexicoLMIC8.2
Ahsan38 (2014)2013GAIndonesiaLMIC8.0
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSCroatiaHIC7.6
Maldonado39 (2019)2013SS/PSColombiaLMIC6.4
Ross40 (2019)2018PSMongoliaLMIC6.3
Goodchild41 (2020)2016–17GAIndiaLMIC6.0
ATO42 (2019)2016GAAustraliaHIC5.5
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSHungaryHIC4.9
Joossens16 (2014)2010SS/PSAlbaniaLMIC4.5
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PASpainHIC3.6
Ajmal43 (2015)2013GANew ZealandHIC2.9
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSFranceHIC2.6
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSFinlandHIC2.3
Little44 (2019)2017SS/PSGeorgiaLMIC1.5
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSItalyHIC0.9
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSAustriaHIC0.8
Joossens16 (2014)2010GA/PSGreeceHIC0.7
  • GA, gap analysis; HIC, high income country; LMIC, low and middle income country; PS, pack survey; SS, smokers survey.