Table 3

Comparison illicit and legal prices in countries with available data

Source of primary data on pricesCountryIllicit price (PPP/pack)Legal price (PPP/pack)Difference (% of legal)Implied increase (%)
Iglesias et al 18 (2017)Brazil*1.21.77140
Joossens et al 16 (2014)France†4.26.07043
Chisha et al 36 (2019)Gambia*3.75.56848
Brown et al 2 (2017)Russia‡2.74.06749
Brown et al 2 (2017)China‡3.14.76652
Saenz de Miera Juarez et al 37 (2019)Mexico†3.45.26553
Brown et al 2 (2017)Ukraine‡3.04.86261
Liber et al 28 (2015)Malaysia*3.04.96965
van der Zee et al 25 (2020)South Africa*1.63.250100
Kaplan et al 32 (2018)Turkey§2.04.148109
Authors estimateAverage2.84.46359
  • *Illicit prices versus minimum legal price.

  • †Illicit prices versus cheapest legal brand.

  • ‡Median illicit price versus median legal price.

  • §Packs with versus without stamps.

  • PPP, purchasing power parity or international dollars.