Table 1

Theoretical approach synthesis

Awareness, Trial and Reinforcement (ATR) FrameworkStages of addiction frameworkSample marketing strategies
Gaining awareness of a brandMarketing cues connecting lifestyle imagery with product use (including paid product placement, native advertising and endorsements among influencers and lifestyle accounts); event sponsorship
Making a first or trial purchaseTransition from nonuse to ‘near-addictive’ useDemonstrations of how to use the product, product sampling; product giveaways, branded merchandise giveaways, discounts
Being reinforced into developing and keeping a repeat buying habit. Regular users may or may not be addicted to the product.Transition from ‘near-addictive’ to ‘addictive’ useLoyalty programmes to encourage more frequent purchases, honouring loyal users with coupons, larger unit packaging, daily engagement messaging featuring shopping deals
Transition from ‘addiction’ to cessation or nonuseAppeals to quit addictive products or facilitating opt out options