Table 1

Summary of North American countries meeting the highest level of achievement for WHO MPOWER strategies, 2020

CountryFCTC ratification or accession
Highest level of MPOWER strategy/FCTC article achieved (X) and date (year)
Monitor tobacco use*
(Article 20)
Protect people from tobacco smoke†
(Article 8)
Offer help to quit tobacco use‡
(Article 14)
Warn about the dangers of tobacco§
(Articles 11, 12)
Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion¶
(Article 13)
Raise taxes of tobacco**
(Article 6)
Antigua and Barbuda5 Jun 2006X (2018)X (2018)††X (2018)
Bahamas3 Nov 2009X (2018)
Barbados3 Nov 2009X (2010)X (2017)
Belize15 Dec 2005
Canada26 Nov 2004X (2007)X (2007)X (2008)X (2011)
Costa Rica21 Aug 2008X (2007)X (2012)X (2013)
CubaOnly signed
Dominica24 Jul 2006
Dominican RepublicNot signed
El Salvador21 Jul 2014X (2015)X (2016)X (2011)
Grenada14 Aug 2007
Guatemala16 Nov 2005X (2008)
HaitiOnly signed
Honduras16 Feb 2005X (2010)X (2017)
Jamaica7 Jul 2005X (2013)X (2016)X (2013)
Mexico28 May 2004X (2013)X (2009)
Nicaragua9 Apr 2008
Panama16 Aug 2004X (2012)X (2008)X (2005)X (2008)
Saint Kitts and Nevis21 Jun 2011
Saint Lucia7 Nov 2005X (2020)X (2017)
Saint Vincent29 Oct 2010
Trinidad and Tobago19 Aug 2004X (2009)X (2013)††
USAOnly signedX (2007)X (2008)X (2020)
  • Information obtained from the WHO.

  • *Defined as having recent, representative and periodical data for both adults and youth.

  • †Defined as all public places being completely smoke-free (or at least 90% of the population covered by complete subnational smoke-free legislation).

  • ‡Defined as having a national quitline, and both nicotine replacement therapy and some cessation servic costs covered.

  • §Defined as large warnings on cigarette packs (≥50% of front and back surfaces) with all appropriate characteristics, including use of pictures.

  • ¶Defined as having a ban on all forms of direct and indirect advertising (or at least 90% of the population covered by subnational legislation completely banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship).

  • **Defined as share of total taxes in the retail price of the most widely sold brand of cigarettes (>75% of retail price is tax).

  • ††Regulation pending.

  • FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.