Table 2

Smoking message elements’ impact, n=810

Message elementPrimary outcomeSecondary outcomes from Tobacco Warnings ModelOther outcomes
Perceived effectivenessAttentionCognitive elaborationNegative affectSocial interactionsPerceived harmPerceived effectiveness, vapingCognitive elaboration, vapingReactance
BBBBBBBBB
Traditional harms
 1 harm versus absent 0.73*** 0.33 0.67*** 0.49** 0.08 0.44* 0.60*** 0.54** 0.02
 3 harms versus absent 0.86*** 0.43* 0.81*** 0.58*** 0.40* 0.61*** 0.57*** 0.64*** 0.09
COVID-19 harm
 1 harm versus absent 0.82*** 0.55*** 0.78*** 0.66*** 0.56*** 0.46** 0.55*** 0.63*** 0.19
Traditional 1 harm × COVID-19 −0.77*** −0.30 −0.57** −0.53** −0.09 −0.41* −0.64** −0.49* −0.03
Traditional 3 harms × COVID-19 −0.86*** −0.50* −0.76*** −0.66*** −0.47* −0.61** −0.52** −0.60** −0.13
  • Bs are unstandardised regression coefficients on standardised dependent variables. Bold indicates statistically significant effects. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.