Table 2

Multilevel models predicting perceived message effectiveness (PME) for message themes

kOverallVaped in past
30 days
Susceptible to vapingNon-susceptible to vaping
N=1501n=464n=649n=388
b95% CIb95% CIb95% CIb95% CI
Intercept3.28**3.19 to 3.373.05**2.95 to 3.143.21**3.14 to 3.283.77**3.67 to 3.87
Message themes
Nicotine addiction700.25**0.21 to 0.290.12*0.05 to 0.190.35**0.28 to 0.410.26**0.18 to 0.34
 Uses the word ‘nicotine’620.31**0.27 to 0.350.18**0.11 to 0.250.4**0.33 to 0.470.33**0.25 to 0.42
 Uses the word ‘addiction’400.14**0.09 to 0.190.06−0.02 to 0.140.17**0.09 to 0.250.2**0.10 to 0.29
Chemicals660.42**0.38 to 0.460.34**0.27 to 0.410.45**0.45 to 0.580.35**0.28 to 0.43
 Specific chemical name460.37**0.32 to 0.420.31**0.23 to 0.390.45**0.37 to 0.520.3**0.21 to 0.38
 Uses the word ‘chemical’340.4**0.35 to 0.460.28**0.19 to 0.360.5**0.42 to 0.590.39**0.30 to 0.49
 Chemical ‘also found in’19−0.09*−0.18 to −0.001−0.11−0.26 to 0.05−0.03−0.18 to 0.11−0.16−0.33 to 0.01
Health effects on organs (brain, lungs)520.4**0.36 to 0.440.32**0.24 to 0.390.49**0.42 to 0.560.35**0.26 to 0.43
 Affects lungs†310.002−0.08 to 0.080.16*0.02 to 0.30−0.07−0.20 to 0.05−0.11−0.27 to 0.06
 Affects brain†230.1*0.02 to 0.18−0.1−0.24 to 0.040.17*0.05 to 0.320.23*0.07 to 0.39
Industry targeting42−0.23**−0.28 to −0.18−0.16**−0.24 to −0.08−0.3**−0.39 to −0.22−0.18**−0.27 to −0.09
Flavours29−0.25**−0.31 to −0.20−0.23**−0.32 to −0.13−0.31**−0.40 to −0.22−0.18*−0.29 to −0.07
Comparison to cigarettes270.31**0.25 to 0.370.19**0.09 to 0.290.42**0.33 to 0.510.28**0.17 to 0.39
Health-related symptoms250.37**0.31 to 0.430.26**0.15 to 0.360.48**0.39 to 0.580.33**0.22 to 0.45
Not harmless water vapour480.17**0.10 to 0.240.004−0.11 to 0.120.28**0.17 to 0.390.23*0.09 to 0.36
Death120.25**0.16 to 0.330.31**0.16 to 0.460.27**0.13 to 0.420.13−0.02 to 0.29
Unknown ingredients or health effects100.25**0.16 to 0.340.17*0.02 to 0.330.32**0.16 to 0.470.22*0.05 to 0.39
Environmental impact10−0.32**−0.41 to −0.22−0.21*−0.37 to −0.06−0.47**−0.62 to −0.32−0.19*−0.36 to −0.01
Sharing vapes can spread germs60.11−0.01 to 0.230.13−0.07 to 0.330.09−0.10 to 0.280.13−0.11 to 0.37
Gateway to cigarette/tobacco use50.55**0.42 to 0.670.43**0.22 to 0.650.68**0.48 to 0.880.45**0.21 to 0.69
  • Outcome is composite score for three-item PME scale: 1=not at all, 2=very little, 3=somewhat, 4=quite a bit, 5=very much (ɑ=0.93); *p<0.05, **p<0.001. Models adjusted for gender, age, race, ethnicity, maternal education, cigarette use and use of one or more other tobacco products.

  • †Coded if “health effects on organs” was “yes”.