Table 1

JUUL (vs combustible cigarette when available) nicotine pharmacokinetics

Author, year, product, flavour and protocolSample (N)# puffs or time (mins)Tmax (mins)Cmax baseline adj (ng/mL)Cmax ratio (JUUL/Cig)AUCtime baseline adj (ng.hour/mL)AUC ratio (JUUL/Cig)
Wynne 2018* 23 N=24 smokers15 min
 JUUL Virginia tob. fixed106.5±3.815.4±6.977%2.4±1.086%
 New Zealand Pall Mall fixed107.5±3.620.1±12.12.8±1.2
 JUUL Virginia tob. ad lib4.5 min5.5±2.418.8±10.781%2.6±1.376%
 New Zealand Pall Mall ad lib4.5 min6.8±3.323.2±16.03.4±1.8
Yingst 201943 N=5 JUUL users
 JUUL mango, menthol fixed308.4±1.731.0±8.7------
Hajek 202044 N=20 dual users 30 min
 JUUL Virginia tob. ad lib5 min4 (2–6)Md 20.4±15.0106%5.1±2.998%
 Cigarettes usual brand ad lib5 min6 (4–8) Md 19.2±17.65.2±3.1
Goldenson 2020* 21 N=66 smokers without prior JUUL use30 min
 JUUL Virginia tob. fixed1067.558%2.5±1.254%
 JUUL mint fixed1067.457%2.5±1.354%
 JUUL crème fixed1065.744%1.9±1.141%
 JUUL mango fixed1067.760%2.7±1.259%
 Cigarettes usual brand fixed10612.94.6±2.3
Buchhalter 2020* 45 N=25 smokers60 min
 JUUL Virginia tob. fixed105.2±1.914.2±7.367%5.0±2.265%
 Marlboro Red standard106.7±5.121.2±11.77.7±3.6
 JUUL Virginia tob. ad lib4.5 min4.9±2.217.4±10.062%5.8±2.759%
 Marlboro Red cigarettes ad lib4.5 min5.8±1.427.9±19.69.8±5.7
Goldenson 202025 * N=24 smokers60 min
 5% JUUL Virginia tob. fixed106.2±2.410.6±5.660%5.2±1.558%
 1.5% JUUL Virginia tob. fixed106.3±1.63.8±2.322%1.8±0.620%
 Cigarettes usual brand fixed107.8±5.017.6±8.78.9±2.7
 5% JUUL Virginia tob. ad lib5 min6.4±2.08.8±3.242%4.8±1.549%
 1.5% JUULEU tobacco ad lib5 min6.5±2.23.8±1.818%1.9±0.720%
 Cigarettes usual brand ad lib5 min6.7±1.720.9±11.39.7±3.5
Goldenson 2020* 22 N=146 smokers without prior JUUL use60 min
 5% JUUL four flavours‡ ad lib5 min6.2Md 9.9±8.346%4.5±3.145%
 3% JUUL four flavours‡ ad lib5 min6.0Md 7.4±6.934%3.3±2.433%
 Cigarettes usual brand ad lib5 min6.2Md 21.7±13.610.0±4.8
Phillips-Waller 202024 N=18 dual users 30 min§
 5% JUUL Virginia tob. ad lib5 min4 (2–6)Md 21.1 (9.9–36.3)Md 164%11.9±5.8109%
 1.7% JUULEU Golden tob. ad lib5 min6 (4–8)Md 3.8 (2.5–7.5)Md 29%2.6±1.024%
 Cigarettes usual brand ad lib5 min5 (4–8)Md 12.9 (8.0–35.6)Md 10.8±7.0
  • All tested JUULpods are 5% strength and US products, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Industry-funded study.

  • †Participants abstained from smoking and vaping overnight or longer prior to participating.

  • ‡Flavours tested: Mango, Cool Mint, Menthol, Virginia Tobacco.

  • §Not baseline adjusted and calculated on n=14 because blood samples not collected for 4 of the 18 participants.

  • AUC, area under the curve; Md, median, interquartile range reported.