Table 1

Sample characteristics, youth aged 16–19 years, by country and survey year, weighted % (n)

CanadaEnglandUSA
2017 (n=4038)2018
(n=3845)
2019
(n=4135)
2017 (n=3995)2018 (n=3874)2019
(n=3493)
2017 (n=4095)2018 (n=4034)2019
(n=3981)
Age (mean; SD)17.6; 1.117.5; 1.117.5; 1.117.5; 1.017.6; 1.017.5; 0.917.5; 1.117.5; 1.117.5; 1.1
Sex*
 Male51.4 (2077)51.5 (1979)51.3 (2121)51.3 (2050)51.3 (1989)51.3 (1793)51.1 (2094)51.1 (2061)51.1 (2034)
 Female48.6 (1961)48.5 (1866)48.7 (2014)48.7 (1945)48.7 (1885)48.7 (1700)48.9 (2001)48.9 (1973)48.9 (1947)
Race/ethnicity†
 White (only)58.4 (2358)47.0 (1807)53.8 (2225)79.4 (3172)77.0 (2985)76.0 (2654)73.4 (3006)73.3 (2959)73.6 (2931)
 Mixed/other/not stated41.6 (1680)53.0 (2038)46.2 (1910)20.6 (823)23.0 (889)24.0 (839)26.6 (1089)26.7 (1075)26.4 (1050)
E-cigarette use
Ever29.3 (1182)33.2 (1275)40.6 (1680)33.7 (1348)33.1 (1283)36.1 (1260)31.3 (1283)33.1 (1336)43.6 (1734)
In the past 30 days8.4 (340)12.1 (463)17.8 (738)8.7 (347)9.0 (351)12.6 (439)11.1 (454)15.7 (635)18.5 (736)
≥20 days in past 30 days1.8 (74)2.4 (92)5.7 (236)1.5 (59)2.0 (76)2.7 (94)2.2 (89)3.8 (154)6.7 (267)
Cigarette smoking
Ever31.9 (1288)31.0 (1193)31.1 (1287)40.4 (1615)40.1 (1554)38.2 (1334)32.3 (1322)32.4 (1306)33.5 (1334)
In the past 30 days10.7 (431)10.0 (383)9.3 (384)15.6 (622)16.7 (645)14.8 (519)11.0 (451)11.7 (470)7.9 (315)
≥20 days in past 30 days4.3 (173)4.1 (158)2.9 (118)4.3 (173)5.8 (226)4.7 (165)3.7 (151)3.9 (156)2.5 (100)
Dual use (e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking)
Ever20.0 (809)20.2 (776)23.8 (983)26.6 (1064)26.0 (1006)26.4 (924)22.4 (919)22.4 (902)26.7 (1062)
In the past 30 days4.0 (162)4.7 (181)5.5 (228)5.0 (201)5.5 (214)6.5 (226)6.0 (245)6.5 (263)5.1 (204)
≥20 days in past 30 days0.5 (20)0.5 (18)0.6 (24)0.3 (13)0.7 (28)0.7 (26)0.4 (15)0.6 (23)0.5 (21)
  • *Determined by response to ‘sex at birth’ survey item; where sex at birth was missing, inferred from gender if ‘man’ or ‘woman’ selected.

  • †Determined by response(s) to a survey item with multiple categories, categorised into those who specified only White/European, or any other response; wording of the Canadian source question changed slightly, from response option ‘White’ in 2017 to ‘European’ in 2018 to ‘White or European’ in 2019.